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CHAPTER 18 DEBUGGING A ND TESTIN G F# PROGRA MS
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Listing 18-1. A Test Fixture for the isPalindrome Function #light open System open NUnit.Framework open IsPalindrome [<TestFixture>] type Test() = let posTests(strings) = for s in strings do Assert.IsTrue(isPalindrome s, sprintf "isPalindrome(\"%s\") must return true" s) let negTests(strings) = for s in strings do Assert.IsFalse(isPalindrome s, sprintf "isPalindrome(\"%s\") must return false" s) [<Test>] member x.EmptyString () = Assert.IsTrue(isPalindrome(""), "isPalindrome must return true on an empty string") [<Test>] member x.SingleChar () = posTests ["a"] [<Test>] member x.EvenPalindrome () = posTests [ "aa"; "abba"; "abaaba" ] [<Test>] member x.OddPalindrome () = posTests [ "aba"; "abbba"; "abababa" ] [<Test>] member x.WrongString () = negTests [ "as"; "F# is wonderful"; "Nice" ] Test units are simply methods that invoke objects of the program and test return values to check that its behavior conforms to the specification. As you can see, we also introduced the posTests and negTests functions used in several tests. Developing unit tests is simply a matter of defining types containing the tests. Although it is possible to write a single test for a program, it is a good idea to have many small tests checking various features and different inputs. In this case, we have been able to introduce five tests for a simple function; of course, we did it to show the main idea, but nevertheless we have developed a test for each significant input to the function. We could have developed a single test with all the code used for the single tests together, but as you will see shortly, this would have reduced the ability of the test suite to spot problems in the program. In general, the choice of the granularity of a test suite for a program is up to the
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CHAPTER 18 DEBUGGING A ND TESTIN G F# PROGR AMS
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developer, and it is a matter of finding a reasonable trade-off between having a large number of unit tests checking very specific conditions and having a small number of unit tests checking broader areas of the program. To compile the project, you must reference the nunit.framework.dll assembly; usually the -R compiler switch is used to ensure that the assembly is copied in the output directory of the program. Once the program has been compiled, you can start NUnit and open the executable. As shown in Figure 18-4, the assembly containing the unit tests has been inspected using the reflection capabilities of the CLR, the classes annotated with the TestFixture attribute are identified by NUnit, and searched-for methods are annotated with the Test attribute. Initially, all the fixtures and the tests are marked with gray dots. When tests are run, the dot is colored green or red depending on the outcome of the particular test.
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Figure 18-4. Test unit of isPalindrome executed in NUnit If we reintroduce the original bug in the isPalindrome function and run NUnit again, EmptyString and EvenPalindrome will fail, the corresponding dots will be marked as red, and the Errors and Failures tab will contain details about the test failure. This is the main benefit of having a large number of small unit tests: tools may run them automatically and help identify problems in a program as well as the area potentially involved in the problem. Even in this simple example, a single test for the whole function would have indicated the problem with the function but failed to spot the kind of input responsible for the problem. As every other piece of software, unit tests have to be maintained, documented, and updated to follow the evolution of the software for which they are designed. The number of test cases, organized in fixtures, tends to grow with the system during development, and in a large system it is possible to have thousands of these tests. Tools such as NUnit have features to control tests and allow you to run subsets of the whole set of test cases for a system. The notion of test fixtures
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