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CHAPTER 4 INTRODUCING IMPERA TIVE PROGRA MMING
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> open System.Collections.Generic;; > open Microsoft.FSharp.Collections;; > let sparseMap = new Dictionary<(int * int), float>();; val sparseMap : Dictionary <string, string list> > sparseMap.[(0,2)] <- 4.0;; val it : unit = () > sparseMap.[(1021,1847)] <- 9.0;; val it : unit = () > sparseMap.Keys;; val it : Dictionary.KeyCollection<(int * int),float>
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= seq [(0,2); (1021; 1847) ]
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Some Other Mutable Data Structures
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Some of the other important mutable data structures in the F# and .NET libraries are as follows: System.Collections.Generic.SortedList<'key,'value>: A collection of sorted values. Searches are done by a binary search. The underlying data structure is a single array. System.Collections.Generic.SortedDictionary<'key,'value>: A collection of key/value pairs sorted by the key, rather than hashed. Searches are done by a binary chop. The underlying data structure is a single array. System.Collections.Generic.Stack<'a>: A variable-sized last-in/first-out (LIFO) collection. System.Collections.Generic.Queue<'a>: A variable-sized first-in/first-out (FIFO) collection. System.Text.StringBuilder: A mutable structure for building string values. Microsoft.FSharp.Collections.HashSet<'key>: A hash table structure holding only keys and no values. From .NET 3.5, a HashSet<'a> type is available in the System.Collections. Generic namespace.
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Exceptions and Controlling Them
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When a routine encounters a problem, it may respond in several ways, such as by recovering internally, emitting a warning, returning a marker value or incomplete result, or throwing an exception. The following code indicates how an exception can be thrown by some of the code we have already been using: > let req = System.Net.WebRequest.Create("not a URL");; System.UriFormatException: Invalid URI: The format of the URI could not be determined.
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Similarly, the GetResponse method also used in the http function may raise a System.Net. WebException exception. The exceptions that may be raised by routines are typically recorded in the documentation for those routines. Exception values may also be raised explicitly by F# code: > raise (System.InvalidOperationException("not today thank you"));; System.InvalidOperationException: not today thank you In F#, exceptions are commonly raised using the F# failwith function: > if false then 3 else failwith "hit the wall";; Microsoft.FSharp.Core.FailureException: hit the wall The types of some of the common functions used to raise exceptions are shown here: val val val val failwith : string -> 'a raise: #exn -> 'a failwithf : StringFormat<'a,'b> -> 'a invalid_arg : string -> 'a
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Note that the return types of all these are generic type variables, meaning that the functions never return normally and instead return by raising an exception. This means they can be used to form an expression of any particular type and indeed can be handy when you re drafting your code. For example, in the following program we ve left part of the program incomplete: if (System.DateTime.Now > failwith "not yet decided") then printfn "you ve run out of time!" Table 4-2 shows some of the common exceptions that are raised by failwith and other operations.
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Table 4-2. Common Categories of Exceptions and F# Functions That Raise Them
Exception Type
FailureException InvalidArgumentException EndOfStreamException DivideByZeroException NullReferenceException
F# Abbreviation
Failure Invalid_arg End_of_file
Description
General failure Bad input End of input reached Integer divide by 0 Unexpected null
Example
failwith "fail" invalid_arg "x" raise End_of_file 1 / 0 (null : string).Length
CHAPTER 4 INTRODUCING IMPERA TIVE PROGRA MMING
Catching Exceptions
You can catch exceptions using the try ... with ... language construct and : type-test patterns, which filter any exception value caught by the with clause. For example: > try raise (System.InvalidOperationException ("it's just not my day")) with | : System.InvalidOperationException -> printfn "caught!";; caught! We cover these patterns more closely in 5. The following code sample shows how to use try ... with ... to catch two kinds of exceptions that may arise from the operations that make up the http method, in both cases returning the empty string "" as the incomplete result. Note that try ... with ... is just an expression, and it may return a result in both branches: open System.IO let http(url: string) = try let req = System.Net.WebRequest.Create(url) let resp = req.GetResponse() let stream = resp.GetResponseStream() let reader = new StreamReader(stream) let html = reader.ReadToEnd() html with | : System.UriFormatException -> "" | : System.Net.WebException -> "" When an exception is thrown, a value is created that records information about the exception. It is this value that is being matched against the earlier type-test patterns. This value may also be bound directly and manipulated in the with clause of the try ... with constructs. For example, all exception values support the Message property: > try raise (new System.InvalidOperationException ("invalid operation")) with | err -> printfn "oops, msg = '%s'" err.Message;; oops, msg = 'invalid operation'
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