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CHAPTER 4 TEST-DRIVEN MYSQL DEVELOPMENT
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Beta Stage Testing A project is typically considered a stable production-quality system when it boasts a complete set of functionality but may include some features that have yet to be made efficient or may require additional robustness work (hardening). Tests run at this stage are generally the complete set of tests for the features being delivered. If defects are found, they are usually minor. This type of testing can also include tests conducted by the target audience and the customer. These groups tend to be less scientific in their approach to testing, but they offer developers a chance to vet their system with the customer and make any minor course corrections to improve their product. Passing beta testing means the software is ready to be prepared for eventual release. In a test-driven development environment, beta testing is another milestone in the continuing testing effort. A beta under a test-driven development is normally the point at which the majority of the features are performing well with respect to the test results. The level of stability of the system is usually judged as producing few defects. Release, Functional, and Acceptance Testing Release testing is usually functional testing where the system is validated that it meets its specifications, and is conducted prior to delivery of the system to the customer. Like the beta stage, some organizations choose to involve the customer in this stage of testing as well. In this case, the testing method is usually called acceptance testing as it is the customer who decides that the software is validated to meet their specifications. A test-driven development environment would consider these milestones as the completion of the tests. Usability Testing Testing is conducted after or near the completion of the system and is sometimes conducted in parallel to functional and release testing. The goal of usability testing is to determine how well a user can interact with the system. There is usually no pass or fail result but rather a list of likes and dislikes. Though very subjective and based solely on the users preferences, usability testing can be helpful in creating software that can gain the loyalty of its users. Usability testing is sometimes completed in a laboratory designed to record the users responses and suggestions for later review. However, most usability testing is done in an informal setting where the developer observes the user using the system or where the user is given the software to use for a period of time and then her comments are taken as part of a survey or interview. Reliability Testing Reliability tests are usually designed to vary the load on the system and to challenge the system with complex data and varying quantities of load (data), and are conducted in order to determine how well the system continues to run over a period of time. Reliability is typically measured in the number of hours the system continues to function and the number of defects per hour or per test. Performance Testing Performance testing is conducted either to establish performance behaviors (benchmarking) or to ensure the system performs within established guidelines. Aspects of the system being examined sometimes include reliability as well as performance. Performance under extreme loads (known as stress testing) is sometimes examined during this type of testing.
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CHAPTER 4 TEST-DRIVEN MYSQL DEVELOPMENT
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Note Usability, reliability, and performance testing are forms of testing that can be conducted in either a
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traditional testing or test-driven development environment.
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Test Design
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Now that you have had a brief introduction to software testing and the types of testing that you can conduct in your own projects, let s turn our attention to how tests are constructed. There are many different philosophies for constructing tests, all of which ultimately intend to exercise, validate, or verify a certain aspect of the software or its process. Let s look at three of the most prominent basic philosophies. Specification-Based Specification-based tests (sometimes called functional tests) are the type of tests that exercise the software requirements and design. The focus is to validate that the software meets its specification. These tests are usually constructed (and based on) a given requirement or group of requirements. Tests are organized into functional sets (sometimes called test suites). As a system is being built, the test sets can be run whenever the requirements are completed or at any time later in the process to validate continued compliance with the requirement (also known as regression testing). Partition Tests Partition tests focus on the input and output data characteristics of the system. Tests are created that test the outer, edge, and mean value ranges of the input or output data being tested. For example, suppose a system is designed to accept input of a positive integer value in the range of 1 to 10. You can form partitions (called equivalence partitions or domains) of this data by testing the values {0, 1, 5, 10, 11}. Some may take this further and include a negative value such as 1. The idea is that if the system does perform range checking, it is more likely that the boundary conditions will exhibit defects than will the valid, or even wildly invalid, data. In our earlier example, there is no need to test values greater than 11 unless you want to test the internal data collection code (the part of the system that reads and interprets the input). However, most modern systems use system-level calls to manage the data entry and by their nature are very reliable (e.g., Microsoft Windows Forms). What is most interesting is you can form partitions for the output data as well. In this case, the tests are designed to exercise how the system takes in known data (good or bad) and produces results (good or bad). In this case, tests are attempting to validate the robustness aspect as well as accuracy of the processing the input data. Partition testing is useful in demonstrating the system meets performance and robustness aspects. Structural Tests Structural tests (sometimes called architectural tests) are constructed to ensure that the system is built according to the layout (or architecture) specified that is, to verify that the system conforms to a prescribed construction. Tests of this nature are designed to ensure certain interfaces are available and are working and that components are working together properly. These categories of tests include all manner of white-box testing, where the goal is to exercise
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