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CHAPTER 5 DEBUGGING
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a way to control and inspect a system that has been compiled in debug mode. Listing 5-5 shows a sample program I wrote to calculate factorials. Those of you with a keen eye will spot the logic error, but let s assume the program was run as written. When I enter a value of 3, I should get the value 6 returned. Instead, I get 18. Listing 5-5. Sample Program (sample.c) #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> static int factorial(int num) { int i; int fact = num; for (i = 1; i < num; i++) { fact += fact * i; } return fact; } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int num; int fact = 0; num = atoi(argv[1]); fact = factorial(num); printf("%d! = %d\n", num, fact); return 0; } If I want to debug this program using gdb, I first have to compile the program in debug mode using the following command: gcc g o sample sample.c Once the program is compiled, I launch gdb using the following command: gdb sample When the gdb debugger issues its command prompt, I issue breakpoints using the break command (supplying the source file and line number for the break) and run the program, providing the necessary data. I can also print out any variables using the print command. If I want to continue the execution, I can issue the continue command. Finally, when done I can exit gdb with the quit command. Listing 5-6 shows a sample debug session using these commands.
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Listing 5-6. Sample gdb Session # gdb sample GNU gdb 6.3 Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc. GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions. Type "show copying" to see the conditions. There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details. This GDB was configured as "i586-suse-linux"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/tls/libthread_db.so.1". (gdb) break sample.c:10 Breakpoint 1 at 0x804841d: file sample.c, line 10. (gdb) run 3 Starting program: /home/Chuck/source/testddd/sample 3 Breakpoint 1, factorial (num=3) at sample.c:11 11 fact += fact * i; (gdb) print i $1 = 1 (gdb) print num $2 = 3 (gdb) print fact $3 = 3 (gdb) continue Continuing. Breakpoint 1, factorial (num=3) at sample.c:11 11 fact += fact * i; (gdb) continue Continuing. 3! = 18 Program exited normally. (gdb) quit # Do you see the logic error I ll give you a hint. What should the first value be for calculating the factorial of the number 3 Take a look at the variable declarations for the factorial method. Something smells with that int fact = num; declaration.
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CHAPTER 5 DEBUGGING
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Note Some folks may want to call debuggers like gdb interactive debuggers because they interact with
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the system while it is running, thus allowing the user to observe the execution. While this is true, keep in mind that gdb is controlling the system externally and you cannot see or interact with the source code other than through very simplistic methods (e.g., the list command, list, lists the source code). If gdb provided a graphical user interface that presented the source code and allowed you to see the data and interact with the source code, it would be an interactive debugger. But wait, that s what the ddd debugger does.
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There are debuggers that are part of the development environment either as part of the compilelink-run tools or as an integrated part of the interactive development environment. Unlike stand-alone debuggers, interactive debuggers use the same or a very similar interface as the development tools. An excellent example of a well-integrated interactive debugger is the debugging facilities in Microsoft Visual Studio .NET. In Visual Studio, the interactive debugger is simply a different mode of the rapid application development process. You dress up a form, write a bit of code, and then run it in debug mode. Figure 5-3 depicts a sample Visual Studio .NET 2005 debug session using a Windows variant of the sample program shown earlier. Interactive debuggers have all of the same features as a stand-alone debugger. You can stop, start, step into, step over, and run to breakpoints or cursor. What makes using an interactive debugger most useful is when you detect the cause of a defect; you can stop the execution, make any necessary changes, and run the system again. Table 5-1 provides a brief description of these commands. While most debuggers have all of these commands and more, some use different names. Consult the documentation for your debugger for the precise names of the commands.
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