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CHAPTER 2 TDD USING HELLO WORLD
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But more about that later. For now, fasten your seatbelt, as this chapter is about to dive down the rabbithole into unit test wonderland. Let s get back to our intrepid pair of TDDers, who are now ready to code.
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Think About the Design
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Before leaping into the code, it s normal to give a little thought to the design. You want the system to accept a login request presumably this means that the user will enter a username and password. You may need to send Loretta back to extract more details from the on-site customer. But then what How will the password be checked Some collaborative white-boarding produces the sketch shown in Figure 2 3.
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Figure 2 3. Initial design sketch for the Login story
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Note Figure 2 3 shows a mix of notation styles; but this diagram isn t about UML correctness, it s about thinking through the design and conveying an overview of the developers plan of attack.
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LoginAction is a generic, Spring Framework-esque UI action class to handle incoming web requests in this case, a login request. It accepts two input values, the username and password, and simply hands the parameters on to a class better suited to handle the login request. LoginManager accepts the username and password, and will need to make an external call to a RESTful service in order to validate the username and password. If validation fails, a ValidationException is thrown, and caught by the LoginAction, which sends a FAIL response back to the user. We also suspect that UserAccount will be needed at some point, but we hope to find out for sure when we begin coding.
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Write the First Test-First Test First
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Let s take a quick look at the project structure. Using Eclipse we ve created a project called LoginExample-TDD, which gives us the following folders: LoginExample-TDD |__ src |__ test |__ bin All the production code will go in packages beneath src, all the unit tests will go into test, and the compiled code will go into bin. Given the white-boarded design sketch in Figure 2 1, it makes sense to focus on LoginManager first. So we ll start by creating a LoginManager test class: import static junit.framework.TestCase.*; import org.junit.Test; public class LoginManagerTest extends TestCase { @Test public void login() throws Exception { } } So far, so good. We ve created a test skeleton for the login() method on LoginManager, which we identified during the brief design white-boarding session. We ll now add some code into this test, to create a LoginManager instance and attempt a login: @Test public void login() throws Exception { LoginManager manager = new LoginManager(); try { manager.login("robert", "password1"); } catch (LoginFailedException e) { fail("Login should have succeeded."); } }
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CHAPTER 2 TDD USING HELLO WORLD
At this stage, Eclipse s editor has become smothered with wavy red lines, and compilation certainly fails (see Figure 2 4).
Figure 2 4. All dressed up with nowhere to go . . . this test needs some code to run against. This compilation failure is a valid stage in the TDD process: the test compilation errors tell us that some code must be written in order to make the test pass. So let s do that next, with two new classes: public class LoginManager { public void login(String username, String password) throws LoginFailedException { } } public class LoginFailedException extends Exception { }
CHAPTER 2 TDD USING HELLO WORLD
A NOTE FROM OUR EDITOR
Our editor Jonathan Gennick sent us this comment, which we thought we would share with you as it sums up our own feelings about TDD pretty well: Last summer, I had someone replace the windows in my dining and living rooms. I should have insisted that the builder attempt to close a window (running the close window test on the empty openings before placing any windows into the wall). Only after running the close window test and having it fail should he have actually inserted the new windows into the opening. Next would come the see if the window falls out and crashes to the ground and breaks test. That would fail, indicating the need for screws to secure the windows to my walls. Of course, by then, we d have broken several hundred dollars worth of double-paned windows with krypton gas (or whatever) inside. The builder would think I was an idiot to suggest such an approach. It s amazing that so many developers have been led down essentially that same path.
The code now compiles, so being eager-beaver TDDers we rush to run our new unit test straightaway, fully expecting (and hoping for) a red bar, indicating that the test failed. But surprise! Look at Figure 2 5. Our test did not successfully fail. Instead, it failingly succeeded. Oops, the test passed when it was meant to fail! Sometimes a passing test should be just as disconcerting as a failing test. This is an example of the product code providing feedback into the tests, just as the tests provide feedback on the product code. It s a symbiotic relationship, and it answers the question, what tests the tests (A variant of the question, who watches the watchers )
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