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3. Use Black Box and Gray Box Testing
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The reason to use black/gray box testing is to avoid breaking encapsulation. In 9, in the Privates on Parade antipattern, we illustrated the problem where a unit test needs to get inside an
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CHAPTER 10 DESIGN FOR EASIER TESTING
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object to test its state, but it can t because the field in question is private. There are a couple of easy solutions to this problem: Make the field package-private instead of private Add a getter
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These solutions both involve increasing the visibility of the field, either by making the field directly accessible to the unit test,5 or by exposing the field in a getter method. Creating a public getXYZ method is the less desirable of the two, as it pollutes the class s interface, making a field public that is relevant only to the internal workings of the class. Conversely, simply making the field package-private (where only classes in the same package can access the field) does less damage to the class design. But it s still not ideal, and doesn t quite ring true as good design practice, as you re still exposing a field for the purpose of the unit test. Luckily, there are also some more profound solutions and this is another place where DDT and TDD differ in their approach: Don t test that specific field checking the value of a wannabe private field makes the test know too much about the internals of the class under test. Test the result at a broader level in other words, involve a controller test that relies on hotelDetailsFound being set in order to achieve a more business-level goal.
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Our preferred solution out of all of these is the final one testing the result at a broader level. If you find that you re considering increasing the scope of a field to test its value, then you should question the value of the test itself. Tests that grub around in the internals of a class are more brittle than tests that simply check the result of an operation using a class s published (or public) interface.
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Note 6 illustrates in detail how to create controller tests that virtually eliminate the problem of unit tests needing to know too much about the code under test.
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Thus armed with an essential set of design guidelines to make software easier to test, let s now return to our rebooted version of the hotel price calculator.
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2. Reserve the Final Modifier for Constants Generally Avoid Marking Complex Types Such as Service Objects as Final
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This suggestion is purely from a testability perspective, and may not always be good advice when it comes to systems design, especially in a multi-threaded environment. It s a design decision, of course:
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5 In Java, package-private (or default access ) fields can be accessed by other classes as long as they re in the same package. Conventionally, unit tests are placed in a different root folder to the product code; but they can still be in the same package/namespace, giving them access to the package-private fields.
CHAPTER 10 DESIGN FOR EASIER TESTING
if you need to ensure that a reference is immutable, then mark the reference as final. However, this might make the code harder to test, as it means that the unit test code won t be able to substitute its own mock implementation. One way around this is to assign the complex type on construction: public class DBManager { private final DBConnectionManager dbManager; public DBManager(DBConnectionManager dbManager) { this.dbManager = dbManager; }
This will allow a test to still pass in its own mock implementation assuming that it s instantiating this particular object directly.
1. Stick to the Use Cases and the Design
Of course, requirements do change and so does the design from time to time. But if it does, the worst approach is the refactoring free-for-all, in which the code is swiftly pushed further and further away from any documented agreed-upon specification of what the customer s asking for, or from the design that the team collectively agreed on during design workshops. The time spent figuring out whether a unit test should be rewritten or abandoned after it breaks (because nothing ties back to the requirements or the design anymore) could have been saved by just a little time updating the use cases and the design model. We illustrate some best practices for keeping the code and the design/use cases in-sync in our upcoming book, ArcGIS Server Best Practices (ESRI Press, 2010).
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