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CHAPTER 9 CSS-DOM
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Setting styles is quite straightforward. I ve shown you how. But perhaps the more important question is, Why
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Knowing when to use DOM styling
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You ve seen how easy it is to set styles using the DOM. But just because you can do something doesn t mean you should. Nine times out of ten, you should be using CSS to declare styles. Just as you should never use the DOM to create important content, you also shouldn t use the DOM to set the majority of styles for a document. Occasionally, however, you can use the DOM to add some small stylistic enhancements to documents where it would be unwieldy to use CSS.
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Styling elements in the node tree
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CSS can be used in several different ways to apply styles. You can apply styles to all occurrences of a particular element, such as paragraphs: p { font-size: 1em; } You can apply styles to all elements that have a particular class attribute: .fineprint { font-size: .8em; } You can apply styles to an element with a unique id attribute: #intro { font-size: 1.2em; } You can apply styles to elements with similar attributes: input[type*="text"] { font-size:1.2em; } In modern browsers, you can even apply styles to an element based on some aspects of its position:
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CHAPTER 9 CSS-DOM
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p:first-of-type { font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; } CSS2 introduced a number of position-based selectors such as :first-child and :last-child, while CSS3 includes position selectors such as :nth-child() and :nth-of-type(), but it's still sometimes difficult to apply styles to an element based on its position in the document s node tree. For instance, with CSS3 you could say, Apply the following styles to the next sibling of all h1 elements by using the h1 ~ * selector. The problem, however, is that many browsers don't support all the nice CSS3 position selectors. The DOM, on the other hand, makes it quite easy to target elements based on their familial relationships with other elements. Using the DOM, you could quite easily imitate the CSS3 sibling selector and find all the h1 elements in a document and then find out what element immediately follows each h1 and apply styles specifically to those elements. First of all, get all the h1 elements using getElementsByTagName: var headers = document.getElementsByTagName("h1"); Loop through all the elements in the node set: for (var i=0; i<headers.length; i++) { You can find the next node in the document using nextSibling: headers[i].nextSibling But in this case you actually want to find not just the next node, but specifically the next element node. This is easily done using a function called getNextElement: function getNextElement(node) { if(node.nodeType == 1) { return node; } if (node.nextSibling) { return getNextElement(node.nextSibling); } return null; } Pass this function the nextSibling node of an h1 element as the argument. Assign the result to a variable called elem: var elem = getNextElement(headers[i].nextSibling); Now you can style this element any way you want: elem.style.fontWeight = "bold"; elem.style.fontSize = "1.2em"; Wrap the whole thing up in a function called styleHeaderSiblings. Be sure to throw in a test to make sure that the browser understands the DOM methods being used: function styleHeaderSiblings() { if (!document.getElementsByTagName) return false; var headers = document.getElementsByTagName("h1"); var elem; for (var i=0; i<headers.length; i++) { elem = getNextElement(headers[i].nextSibling);
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CHAPTER 9 CSS-DOM
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elem.style.fontWeight = "bold"; elem.style.fontSize = "1.2em"; } } function getNextElement(node) { if(node.nodeType == 1) { return node; } if (node.nextSibling) { return getNextElement(node.nextSibling); } return null; } You can call the function using the window.onload event: window.onload = styleHeaderSiblings; Better yet, use the addLoadEvent function so that you can always add more functions to the same event: addLoadEvent(styleHeaderSiblings); Here s the addLoadEvent function, which you can store in an external file: function addLoadEvent(func) { var oldonload = window.onload; if (typeof window.onload != 'function') { window.onload = func; } else { window.onload = function() { oldonload(); func(); } } } To see the styleHeaderSiblings function in action, write a document that uses level one headings: <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8" /> <title>Man bites dog</title> </head> <body> <h1>Hold the front page</h1> <p>This first paragraph leads you in.</p> <p>Now you get the nitty-gritty of the story.</p> <p>The most important information is delivered first.</p> <h1>Extra! Extra!</h1> <p>Further developments are unfolding.</p> <p>You can read all about it here.</p> </body> </html> Save this document as story.html; here s what it looks like in a browser.
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