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Here, the string drwxrwxr-x holds the POSIX permissions. In an ls output, the first digit, d, specifies the file system type, in this case a directory. The next three digits, rwx (read, write, and execute), represent the mode for the owner, who in this example is demo in the admin group. Thus, user demo has read, write, and execute privileges for this folder. The next three digits represent group privileges, and the final three represent everyone privileges. For the vast majority of POSIX privilege management, you ll be using these three basic access rights: read, write, and execute. To an extent, these privileges are fairly self explanatory: If you have read permission for a file, you can open it and view its contents. If you have the permission for a directory, you can list its contents. The write privilege, when applied to a file, allows for both modification and deletion. But----a user without write privileges for both a file and its parent directory can t delete the file. Thus, removing the write privilege from a directory is a handy way of establishing an append-only or drop-box privilege scheme. The execute bit, when enabled for a file, allows execution of it. This is not the same as opening a file. The former implies that the file contains executable binary data or uncompiled code which references an interpreter via a hash-bang (#!) statement (for which you ll find more detail in chapter 8). The executable bit also plays a very important role with directories: It controls whether users are allowed to traverse a directory s path. A person who lacks the privileges via ownership, group membership, or public permissions won t be able to list the contents of the directory. Nor will that individual be able to access any file-system elements the directory contains. Because of this, denying execute privileges is a good way to completely block users from accessing data at the perimeter of a directory structure, thus allowing you to continue to use owner, group, and everyone management. In contrast, denying users read privileges on a directory will not prevent them from traversing into its subdirectories, where they ll have any access granted at the everyone level (which may include read access to sensitive data).
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CHAPTER 4: Storage
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For day-to-day management of POSIX permissions, these three modes will be your primary weapons against those pesky users. But you have a few more options. In the previous ls output we showed, you may have noticed some special permissions on the directory /Users/Shared. Here s the line again:
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drwxrwxrwt 13 root wheel 442 Jun 29 23:54 Shared
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Under the everyone digits (the letters in bold), instead of the expected x (execute), we have a t. This is referred to as the sticky bit. When enabled on a directory, it prevents deletion of a file inside of that directory by anyone other than the file s owner. Thus, if Jimbob creates a file, then gives everyone read and write privileges, Geraldine will be able to edit its content, but not delete it. Only Jimbob can delete the file. It s worth noting, though, that with write privileges, nothing stops Gerry from simply deleting all of the file s contents. To assign the sticky bit to a directory, you simply use a forth octal number, which has a value of 001. Thus, the Shared folder in the example line above has a mode of 1777, with the 1 (001 binary) being the sticky directory. To actually apply this mode to a file, use the chmod command, run as root if you re the owner of the targeted directory:
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chmod 1777 /Users/Shared chmod R 777 /Users/Shared/*
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The second line specifies the R flag, which will actually apply the mode 777 to all items inside of the /Users/Shared/ directory. Thus, all files in the directory will be editable by anyone, but because of the first command that was run, only the owner can delete a file. The fourth octal has two modes in addition to sticky: set-group-ID-on-execution, which has a value of 010, and set-user-ID-on-execution bit, which has a value of 100. In OS X, these two operate solely on executable files that contain binary executable data (no #! scripts). If either of these modes is set on an executable, whenever that file runs, it will do so in the context of the owner and group assigned to it. Thus, if a program is owned by root and has setuid on, whoever runs that program will have root access (within the confines of that program). This is a bit of a scary thought, so use this capability with great care. Many a local privileged-escalation exploit has been born from the setuid bit. You should understand one final aspect of POSIX permissioning in OS X: How the system deals with group assignment on newly created files and directories. Historically in OS X, when a user creates a file, that file will assume group ownership based on the creating user s primary group id. But with OS X 10.5, Apple introduced compliance with SUS3 (Single Unix Standard, version 3), which dictates that the group established to the new file will be inherited based on group ownership of the parent directory. This is a much better system, and produces a lot less frustration. With this change, you can now use group permissions on directories to establish groupspecific collaboration areas. There s just one small wrinkle in this plan. By default, OS X ships with a umask value of 022. When you create a file, the default mode is full privileges, 777, filtered by the 022 umask. To determine ultimate privileges, you simply subtract the number representing the umask from that of the privileges. So in this case, newly created filesystem objects will have a mode of 755 (777 minus 022), or rwxr-xr-x.
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