JavaScript in Java

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JavaScript
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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
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Document Object Model (DOM)
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XMLHttpRequest object
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The key elements of Ajax
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We saw in chapter 1 how an Ajax application delivers a complex, functioning application up front to users, with which they then interact. JavaScript is the glue that is used to hold this application together, defining the user workflow and business logic of the application. The user interface is manipulated and refreshed by using JavaScript to manipulate the Document Object Model (DOM), continually redrawing and reorganizing the data presented to the users and processing their mouse- and keyboard-based interactions. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) provide a consistent look and feel to the application and a powerful shorthand for the programmatic DOM manipulation. The XMLHttpRequest object (or a range of similar mechanisms) is used to talk to the server asynchronously, committing user requests and fetching up-to-date data while the user works. Figure 2.1 shows how the technologies fit together in Ajax.
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Web browser CSS styling Define look and feel JavaScript logic
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Define content and layout
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XMLHttpRequest Object
Web server
Figure 2.1 The four main components of Ajax: JavaScript defines business rules and program flow. The Document Object Model and Cascading Style Sheets allow the application to reorganize its appearance in response to data fetched in the background from the server by the XMLHttpRequest object or its close cousins.
First steps with Ajax
Three of the four technologies CSS, DOM, and JavaScript have been collectively referred to as Dynamic HTML, or DHTML for short. DHTML was the Next Big Thing around 1997, but not surprisingly in this industry, it never quite lived up to its initial promise. DHTML offered the ability to create funky, interactive interfaces for web pages, yet it never overcame the issue of the full-page refresh. Without going back to talk to the server, there was only so much that we could do. Ajax makes considerable use of DHTML, but by adding the asynchronous request, it can extend the longevity of a web page considerably. By going back to the server while the interface is doing its stuff, without interruption, Ajax makes a great difference to the end result. Rather conveniently, all of these technologies are already preinstalled in most modern web browsers, including Microsoft s Internet Explorer; the Mozilla/ Gecko family of browsers, including Firefox, Mozilla Suite, Netscape Navigator, and Camino; the Opera browser; Apple s Safari; and its close cousin Konqueror, from the UNIX KDE desktop. Inconveniently, the implementations of these technologies are frustratingly different in some of the fine details and will vary from version to version, but this situation has been improving over the last five years, and we have ways of coping cleanly with cross-browser incompatibilities. Every modern operating system comes with a modern browser preinstalled. So the vast majority of desktop and laptop computers on the planet are already primed to run Ajax applications, a situation that most Java or .NET developers can only dream about. (The browsers present in PDAs and Smartphones generally offer a greatly cut-down feature list and won t support the full range of Ajax technologies, but differences in screen size and input methods would probably be an issue even if they did. For now, Ajax is principally a technology for desktop and laptop machines.) We ll begin by reviewing these technologies in isolation and then look at how they interoperate. If you re a seasoned web developer, you ll probably know a lot of this already, in which case you might like to skip ahead to chapter 3, where we begin to look at managing the technologies by using design patterns. Let s start off our investigations by looking at JavaScript.
2.2 Orchestrating the user experience with JavaScript
The central player in the Ajax toolkit is undoubtedly JavaScript. An Ajax application downloads a complete client into memory, combining data and presentation and program logic, and JavaScript is the tool used to implement that logic.
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