First steps with Ajax in Java

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First steps with Ajax
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It has a single parent element, zero or more child elements, and any number of attributes, which are stored as an associative array (that is, by a textual key such as width or style rather than a numerical index). Figure 2.3 illustrates the abstract structure of the document shown in listing 2.2, as seen using the Mozilla DOM Inspector tool (see appendix A for more details). The relationship between the elements in the DOM can be seen to mirror that of the HTML listing. The relationship is two-way. Modifying the DOM will alter the HTML markup and hence the presentation of the page. This provides a top-level view of what the DOM looks like. In the following section, we ll see how the DOM is exposed to the JavaScript interpreter and how to work with it.
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Figure 2.3 The DOM presents an HTML document as a tree structure, with each element representing a tag in the HTML markup.
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Organizing the view using the DOM
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2.4.1 Working with the DOM using JavaScript
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In any application, we want to modify the user interface as users work, to provide feedback on their actions and progress. This could range from altering the label or color of a single element, through popping up a temporary dialog, to replacing large parts of the application screen with an entirely new set of widgets. By far the most usual is to construct a DOM tree by feeding the browser with declarative HTML (in other words, writing an HTML web page). The document that we showed in listing 2.2 and figure 2.3 is rather large and complex. Let s start our DOM manipulating career with a small step. Suppose that we want to show a friendly greeting to the user. When the page first loads, we don t know his name, so we want to be able to modify the structure of the page to add his name in later, possibly to manipulate the DOM nodes programmatically. Listing 2.3 shows the initial HTML markup of this simple page.
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Listing 2.3 Ajax hello page
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<html> <head> <link rel='stylesheet' type='text/css' href='hello.css' /> Link to stylesheet <script type='text/javascript' src='hello.js'></script> Link to JavaScript </head> <body> <p id='hello'>hello</p> <div id='empty'></div> Empty element </body>
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We have added references to two external resources: a Cascading Style Sheet b and a file containing some JavaScript code c. We have also declared an empty <div> element with an ID d, into which we can programmatically add further elements. Let s look at the resources that we ve linked to. The stylesheet defines some simple stylings for differentiating between different categories of item in our list by modifying the font and color (listing 2.4).
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Listing 2.4 hello.css
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.declared{ color: red; font-family: arial; font-weight: normal;
First steps with Ajax
font-size: 16px; } .programmed{ color: blue; font-family: helvetica; font-weight: bold; font-size: 10px; }
We define two styles, which describe the origin of our DOM nodes. (The names of the styles are arbitrary. We called them that to keep the example easy to understand, but we could have just as easily called them fred and jim.) Neither of these style classes is used in the HTML, but we will apply them to elements programmatically. Listing 2.5 shows the JavaScript to accompany the web page in listing 2.4. When the document is loaded, we will programmatically style an existing node and create some more DOM elements programmatically.
Listing 2.5 hello.js
window.onload=function(){ var hello=document.getElementById('hello'); hello.className='declared'; var empty=document.getElementById('empty'); addNode(empty,"reader of"); addNode(empty,"Ajax in Action!"); var children=empty.childNodes; for (var i=0;i<children.length;i++){ children[i].className='programmed'; } empty.style.border='solid green 2px'; empty.style.width="200px";
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} function addNode(el,text){ var childEl=document.createElement("div"); el.appendChild(childEl); var txtNode=document.createTextNode(text); childEl.appendChild(txtNode); }
The JavaScript code is a bit more involved than the HTML or the stylesheet. The entry point for the code is the window.onload() function, which will be called programmatically once the entire page has been loaded. At this point, the DOM tree
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