8: Malware Security: Combating Viruses, Worm, and Root Kits in Objective-C

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CHAPTER 8: Malware Security: Combating Viruses, Worm, and Root Kits
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Root kits act like spyware, but are typically much more dangerous. The difference between Rootkits and Spyware lies in the intent. Root kits are specifically designed to allow an attacker to gain hidden unauthorized access to a computer to compromise the integrity of the system. A root kit can be installed on a computer in a variety of ways and will provide those with access unlimited access to the machine as a result. The primary objective of many root kits is to evade detection by the operating system. As such, they often masquerade as other applications in order to hide themselves. One example of a root kit threat for the Mac is SH.Renepo.B, released in October 2004. SH.Renepo.B deletes Unix commands, deletes various log files, modifies security preferences, launches a keystroke logger, installs software, changes the hostconfig file, scans the system for passwords, enables file sharing, creates an invisible folder named canned.info in each user s Public folder, and creates a process that spikes the processor of infected hosts. The payload for SH.Renepo.B is considerable, but the file size is only 46KB. If a root kit does find its way onto your system, then a quick comparison of the date and times that a file were created and modified based on an originally known good set of the same files will often identify the presence of a root kit. Using check sums to calculate whether any changes have occurred is a better way of detecting a root kit. Rootkit Hunter is a GPL-based terminal application that can scan for specific known root kits. However, many root kits are not known, or they re altered so they can t be discovered by root kit scanners. Rootkit Hunter will not find SH.Renepo.B, for example, but will find variants of the FreeBSD root kit that have been found in Mac OS X environments. SH.Renepo.B may be added to future releases of Rootkit Hunter, but it is not included at this time. You can download Rootkit Hunter from www.rootkit.nl. To install Rootkit Hunter, follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Download the gzipped file, extract it, and run the installation script. Extract Rootkit Hunter using the command tar zxf rkhunter<version>.tar.gz. Run ./installer.sh from inside the rkhunter directory. Change directory (cd) into the rkhunter folder, and run the command sudo./rkhunter checkall to perform all the tests on the system.
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Once you have Rootkit Hunter installed, you can invoke it using the following additional parameters: --configfile <filename>: Uses a custom configuration file. --createlogfile: Creates a log at /var/log/rkhunter.log. --cronjob: Runs as cronjob.
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CHAPTER 8: Malware Security: Combating Viruses, Worm, and Root Kits
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--help: Shows the Rootkit Hunter manual page. --nocolors: Doesn t use any colors in the output. --report-mode: Limits the contents of a report. --skip-keypress: Doesn t wait after every test (makes it noninteractive). --quick: Performs quick scan. --version: Shows the version. Now we will create an example of a shell script (rkexport.sh) that will run rkhunter and append the output to a new .txt file that could be viewed from the Web, provided that the /admin directory of your site is password-protected. Once you ve run rkhunter, you can build on the previous section and run a ClamAV scan of the system and dump the results into the same file:
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Date >> /opt/apache2/htdocs/admin Whoami >> /opt/apache2/htdocs/admin Rkhunter version >> /opt/apache2/htdocs/admin Rkhunter checkall skip-keypress report-mode >> /opt/apache2/htdocs/admin Clamscan V >> /opt/apache2/htdocs/admin Clamscan / -r i move=/Quarantine >> /opt/apache2/htdocs/admin
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This should provide you with output similar to the following:
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Sun May 7 18:49:04 PDT 2006 Cedge Rootkit Hunter 1.2.8 * MD5 scan MD5 compared : 0 Incorrect MD5 checksums : 0 * File scan Scanned files: 342 Possible infected files: 0 * Rootkits Possible rootkits: Scanning took 110 seconds *important* Scan your system sometimes manually with full output enabled! Some errors have been found while checking. Please perform a manual check on this machine called Charles.local: ----------- SCAN SUMMARY ----------Known viruses: 52427 Engine version: 0.88 Scanned directories: 1342 Scanned files: 60046 Infected files: 0 Data scanned: 14.93 GB Time: 19.096 sec (0 m 9 s)
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