print barcode in asp.net c# 9: Encrypting Files and Volumes in Objective-C

Making Data Matrix 2d barcode in Objective-C 9: Encrypting Files and Volumes

CHAPTER 9: Encrypting Files and Volumes
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Figure 9 13. Deploying FileVault MCX settings Using Workgroup Manager
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For more information on using MCX management, refer to Enterprise Mac Administrator s Guide, by Charles Edge, Beau Hunter, and Zack Smith (Apress, 2009). CAUTION: In order to ensure access to the FileVault encrypted image, the System will store the FileVault keys in memory. This leads to a potential problem, as certain attack vectors may be able to pull this information from memory, such as cold boot attacks or by exploiting interfaces that provide DMA (direct memory access), such as FireWire. Additionally, another feature of OS X, safe sleep, results in the contents of RAM being written to disk. Because the System memory contains the FileVault key, it is possible for an attacker to extract this information from your hard drive in the event that they can obtain your machine while it is in a sleep state. To avoid this, enable the Secure virtual memory option found under the Security System Preference pane, which will ensure that any memory contents, whether from standard virtual memory swapping or from a saved sleep image, are encrypted. To protect against cold-boot or DMA attacks, ensure that you log out of your computer when in transit or unattended, and that only trusted devices are plugged into your machine. Firewire-based DMA attacks can be prevented by enabling an Open Firmware password on the machine.
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CHAPTER 9: Encrypting Files and Volumes
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The FileVault Master Password
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As we discussed in the previous section, there is a potential liability factor that a company assumes when deploying encryption of user data, as it means that there is a higher potential for the loss of sensitive company data, simply due to the potential loss of encryption keys. However, as we learned previously, companies can mitigate this liability by using a secondary access provision through the use of certificates. Fortunately, by default, FileVault uses such a certificate to provide a backdoor to this data. In the FileVault context, the terminology that Apple applies to this is a master password, and in fact, a master password must be set before a user can enable FileVault. If such a master password is not yet set, then an administrator will be prompted to provide one when enabling FileVault for the first time. This master password is in fact a FileVault-specific keychain whose contents consist solely of a certificate and private key identity that is used specifically for FileVault certificate-based authentication. The master password is simply the password that is used to secure the FileVault keychain itself. With this setup, the master password can be rotated without concern that existing encrypted disk images need have the new password applied to it. As we all know (hopefully ), it s a good idea in security sensitive environments to routinely rotate sensitive passwords, and certainly the backdoor password to decrypt company data qualifies as sensitive. If to change the password you needed to go out and touch every single encrypted disk image protected by this password, the ability for administrators to rotate passwords would be significantly restricted. Thankfully, this is not needed: the certificate used to decrypt data never changes, only the passcode to locally access the certificate does. There is however, another consideration that need be realized here to successfully deploy FileVault at an organization level. By default, when FileVault is enabled on a computer, the FileVault identity, the certificate and correlating private key, is dynamically generated, and stored in a keychain protected by the provided Master Password at /Library/Keychains/FileVaultMaster.keychain. Likewise, the certificate itself, which is typically public domain, is stored at /Library/Keychains/FileVaultMaster.cer. While this certificate is also available in the FileVaultMaster keychain, placing the certificate itself in the filesystem allows users to enable FileVault with the certificate backdoor without the need to first provide the master password to access the same cert that is stored in the keychain. Well, you might be noticing the problem here: if the FileVaultMaster keychain is automatically generated on each individual client machine on an ad-hoc basis, then there is a mathematical probability that no two client machines will have the same identity. This presents a significant problem when deploying FileVault on a large scale: if every machine utilizes a unique FileVault identity, which is used to recover a FileVault image, then an administrator will need to track every separate identity for every machine to ensure that they can recover the encrypted data should the user s password become unavailable. While it might not be terribly difficult to securely maintain a small number of FileVault identities, economies of scale will show it to be a detrimental strategy to provide backdoor access to encrypted data across the fleet. FileVault is at its core a client-side technology, and has no centralized key-management capabilities. Luckily, there is an easy solution to this problem, and that is to preemptively deploy a master FileVaultMaster keychain to all of your clients prior to enabling FileVault for any users on
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