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To use dummynet, you start by creating a pipe or a set of pipes for traffic to flow through. A pipe is created by inserting a pipe command into an ipfw command, while using a unique numerical identifier to access it in the ipfw rule. The official syntax for the ipfw pipes is:
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ipfw {pipe | queue} number config config-options
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Each pipe has a maximum amount of throughput that can flow through it. The following creates pipe 1 that allows for 752KB worth of traffic to travel through the pipe per second:
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ipfw pipe 1 config bw 752KByte/s
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The previous command creates a pipe that limits traffic coming through the pipe and caps it at half a T1 worth of traffic. That is all it does. If you want to attach services to it, you need to augment the command with more specific criteria.
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CHAPTER 11: Setting Up the Mac OS X Firewall
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Let s say you want to create a rule that enforces a pipe to a specific port range. In the following example, we will limit AFP traffic to half of our T1 by binding pipe 1 to port 548.
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ipfw add 1 pipe 1 src-port 548
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NOTE: The maximum number of pipes, by default, is 16. This is primarily because the net.inet.ip.dummynet.max_chain_len variable, which controls the maximum number of pipes, is set to 16. You can change this using sysctl. If you need more than 16 pipes, then you may have stability issues with high-traffic loads. The final task with bandwidth throttling will be to limit the amount of throughput that each individual connection can take. In this case, you will use something known as address masking. When you use masking, you are telling the system to limit a specific IP address or set of IP addresses to a specified pipe size rather than applying a pipe to a port. To configure a pipe that limits each AFP connection (port 548) to 75Mbps, you would add the following series of lines to the system:
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ipfw add pipe 1 ip from any to any src-port 548 ipfw pipe 1 config mask src-ip 0x0000ffff bw 75Mbits/s
NOTE: As with other ipfw rules, your pipes must be added to your ipfw.conf file in order to be persistent after restarts.
Pipe Masks
Pipes can allow multiple queues per traffic flow. This allows you to cap the bandwidth of each server and not just the aggregate bandwidth of all traffic moving through the pipe. This allows an administrator to manually create a pipe for each server when using Mac OS X as a gateway device (router). Masks are used to define which hosts belong to a pipe. Masks can be specified as follows: dst-ip: IP packets sent using the pipe for which they re bound. src-ip: Mask for the specified source. dst-port: Mask for the specified destination port. src-port: Mask for the specified source ports. proto: Mask for the specified protocol. all: Mask for any computer. For example, if you have a network behind a firewall and all your systems have a desired 500Kbit/s bandwidth maximum, all the traffic can be sent through a pipe. The cap of the pipe will then be applied to the aggregate traffic from all the hosts and not applied to
CHAPTER 11: Setting Up the Mac OS X Firewall
each pipe individually. If the traffic for each host is sent into a separate queue and applied the bandwidth limit separately, you could use the following rule:
pipe 20 config mask src-ip 0x000000ff bw 500Kbit/s queue 100Kbytes pipe 21 config mask dst-ip 0x000000ff bw 500Kbit/s queue 100Kbytes add 10101 add pipe 20 all from 10.0.0.0/16 to any out via <IP of server> add 10102 add pipe 21 all from 10.0.0.0/16 to any in via <IP of server>
NOTE: Pipe masks get very complicated. We are looking to help you get started with using them, but mastering pipe masks is beyond the scope of this book. Refer to the manual page for ipfw in order to gain a mastery of them.
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