zebra barcode printer c# 14: Web Site Security in Objective-C

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CHAPTER 14: Web Site Security
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Figure 14 1. Turning on Web Sharing in OS X System Preferences
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The Apache web server in Mac OS X Server is a powerful open-source web server capable of running on anything from a small web appliance to large computing clusters. Apache is the most widely used web server on the Internet, and is used for small and big sites alike, from small web sites run out of people s homes to large corporate sites with hundreds of servers that process web requests from thousands of users every secondMac OS X Server provides more configuration options with Server Admin, but it is possible to perform the same tasks from the configuration files that you can when enabling Web Sharing. OS X and OS X Server use the same version of Apache. Web Sharing allows Mac OS X users to host web sites on their computers. As you can see, it s fairly easy to enable, right in the Sharing preference pane. However, administrators cannot properly secure Apache using only the options available in the Sharing preference pane. To do this, you need to dig deeper. Let s examine how you accomplish this.
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Introducing the httpd Daemon
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Once the web services are turned on, if you open Activity Monitor, and look for the httpd service (short for HTTP daemon) under your processes, you will not find it. Why is that As you can see in Figure 14 2, the web httpd runs as the root user, giving it a high level of access. It is possible to modify the start-up scripts for httpd and have it run as a dedicated Apache user. This can help to mitigate the risk of further damage being done if someone were to exploit the web server.
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CHAPTER 14: Web Site Security
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NOTE: The httpd daemon listens for web traffic over port 80 (by default) and processes those requests using the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP).
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Figure 14 2. The httpd process in Activity Monitor
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Removing the Default Files
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One of the first steps you should take to secure the Mac OS X web server is to replace the default web site files. The files are stored in the /Library/WebServer/Documents folder and have no other purpose except as a test site to determine whether the web server is working properly. If your system is visible to the Internet via a publicly-routable IP address, your site will be crawled by search engines such as Google and Bing unless you specifically disallow it. Leaving the default files in place will tell potential attackers that you re not taking an in-depth approach to security, and that you re a target worthy of further consideration.
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Changing the Location of Logs
Changing the location of where logs are written can give a hacker one less place to look for pertinent information about your web site. Writing logs to a separate location can also help centralize them, which can come in handy when you need to quickly troubleshoot intrusion attempts. It can also take some of the headache out of developing scripts that grab information from these logs, such as the number of visitors
CHAPTER 14: Web Site Security
to the site. These logs can be written to a local server or to a different destination entirely. The default location of your logs is /private/var/log/apache2/. To change this, open the httpd.conf file in /private/etc/apache2/, scroll down to the CustomLog variable, and change the path using the complete path of the file to which you want to write your logs.
Restricting Apache Access
As discussed in 11, by using the Mac OS X firewall, it is possible to limit access to various ports in OS X using the ipfw command. If you host a web site that should be accessible only to computers on the internal network, you need to configure your firewall to restrict access to the web server, allowing only local systems to access it. If necessary, you can add rules to allow access to computers outside of your network as well. For instance, if you have a web server that should only be accessible to your Accounting department, you could assign static IP addresses to those users (or reserve addresses for them on your DHCP server), and then restrict access to Apache s ports to only those addresses. NOTE: If you restrict access to your internal site based on IP addressing, make sure that as new IP schemes are added to your network environment, these changes are accounted for in later revisions of your ipfw tables.
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