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CHAPTER 5: Reviewing Logs and Monitoring
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Figure 5 1. Using Console
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Console was designed to give you an easy one-stop shop for reviewing system logs. Although this is helpful, Console doesn t show you every log on your computer. Each application logs information a little bit differently, and it would be impossible to cover every aspect of every log file ever created. Happily, many of the apps made for Mac OS X follow a fairly standard method that Apple established with its own logs. We ll point out the ones to check for most security purposes. You can then apply this knowledge to other network-aware applications in order to check their logs for issues. Before we delve into what these logs can tell you, we ll discuss how you can interact with the logs.
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It is sometimes helpful to mark a spot in a log, while you are reviewing them, much like using a sticky note or highlighter to mark a passage in a book. To do so, select the log in the Logs window of Console and click the Insert Marker button. It s important to note that these markers are not inserted into the log itself, but into your view of the log in Console. Clicking the Reload button, choosing another log, or quitting Console will cause those markers to disappear. Another way to insert a marker into system.log and the ASL database is to use the logger utility, which provides an interface to syslogd. All entries you write will be prefaced with the date and time, and will include whatever message you send to it.
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CHAPTER 5: Reviewing Logs and Monitoring
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This command will insert the following line in system.log:
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Console also makes it easy to copy data out of the logs. When you click a log in Console, you can highlight text and copy it to TextEdit, Word, or any other program that supports pasting. To copy, you can either use Cmd-C key or select Edit Copy. Notice that you cannot cut text; Console does not let you modify logs. For performance and simplicity, when you view the logs in the Database Searches section of Console, it will show you only the most recent 4,000 lines of data in the log. If there is more data in a log than Console can show, the Earlier and Later buttons on Console s status bar will become active. When viewing any of the other logs, Console will only show the most recent 16MB of messages. When a log is larger than this, the Earlier and Later buttons will allow you to view the rest of the log. NOTE: When viewing very large log files, such as Console.log, you might have to wait for a long time if the log size is bigger than a few megabytes.
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Searching Logs
If you re looking for a specific item in a log, the Filter box in Console s Toolbar will filter the log you re currently viewing, showing you only the lines containing the text you re seeking. If you re looking for successful and failed ssh attempts, you could enter sshd in the Filter box. As you type, the messages will be filtered until you re only viewing messages containing sshd. This can be very useful for simple searches, but it can be difficult to put the results in context. You can also search within a log by going to Edit Find (or pressing Cmd-F) and entering a search term. The first matching instance will be highlighted, and you can see what you re looking for while still seeing what else was being logged around that time. It s also possible to find terms within a filtered log. Console also allows you to create saved Database Searches that will appear at the top of the Log List alongside All Messages and Console Messages. Go to File New Database Search (or press Cmd-Option-N), and you will be presented with the Database Search editor (see Figure 5 2).
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