pdf417 scanner java Figure 11-4. Using Flash Professional to modify and compile a document in Java

Printer PDF-417 2d barcode in Java Figure 11-4. Using Flash Professional to modify and compile a document

Figure 11-4. Using Flash Professional to modify and compile a document
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Loading a SWF File into Another Project
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Another known attack is loading a SWF file belonging to a Flex project and then having the accessing application make changes to the accessed application. In the example below, the accessing application gains access to another application, and I can then change the text property on a label and even use a login service method. Create a new project. Call it CrossScriptingFlex, and paste the following code:
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< xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <s:Application xmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" xmlns:mx="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/mx" minWidth="1024" minHeight="768" initialize="initializeHandler()"> <fx:Script> <![CDATA[ import mx.controls.Alert; import mx.core.IFlexModuleFactory; import mx.events.FlexEvent;
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// define variables private var loader:Loader; private var content:*; // load swf private function initializeHandler():void { loader = new Loader(); loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener (SecurityErrorEvent.SECURITY_ERROR, securityErrorHandler); loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener (Event.COMPLETE, loadContent_onComplete); loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener (IOErrorEvent.IO_ERROR, ioErrorHandler); loader.load(new URLRequest("main.swf"));
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component.addChild(loader); }
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// Event Handler
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private function loadContent_onComplete(event:Event):void { content = event.target.content; var onContentApplicationComplete:Function = function(event:Event):void { // content loaded successfully } content.addEventListener (FlexEvent.APPLICATION_COMPLETE, onContentApplicationComplete); }
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private function ioErrorHandler(event:IOErrorEvent):void { loader.contentLoaderInfo.removeEventListener (IOErrorEvent.IO_ERROR, ioErrorHandler); Alert.show(event.text); } private function securityErrorHandler(event:SecurityErrorEvent):void { loader.contentLoaderInfo.removeEventListener (SecurityErrorEvent.SECURITY_ERROR, securityErrorHandler); Alert.show(event.text); }
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// methods to access loaded swf
private function changeTextOnSWF(str:String):void { this.content.document.label.text = str; } private function login():void { this.content.document.signupUtil.signup(); } ]]> </fx:Script> <mx:UIComponent id="component" width="400" height="400" x="0" y="100" /> <s:Button label="Change text on loaded SWF" click="changeTextOnSWF('Hello again!')" <s:Button label="Login" click="login()" /> </s:Application>
x="84" y="0"/>
The accessed application will hold a label field and an instance of a class that enables the user to log in. Create a Flex application in FlashBuilder 4, and call it AccessedApplication.
< xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <s:Application xmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" xmlns:mx= library://ns.adobe.com/flex/mx minWidth="1024" minHeight="768"> <fx:Script> <![CDATA[ import utils.CallSignupService; public var signupUtil:CallSignupService = new CallSignupService();
FLASH SECURITY
]]> </fx:Script> <s:Label id="label" text="Hello!" </s:Application> x="8" y="9"/>
Here s the class that allows the user to sign into the application. This is just an experiment in which we didn t implement a service call; however, it gives you the idea.
package utils { import mx.controls.Alert; public class CallSignupService { public function CallSignupService() { } public function signup():void { // method to signup to using a service Alert.show("User login!"); } } }
Copy the SWF from the accessed application (main.swf), and place it in the bin-debug folder of the accessing application. Run the accessing application. Figure 11-5 shows the result.
Figure 11-5. Accessing the application shown in the browser
Right now we are loading the accessed application from the same domain. However, if you place the accessed application and the accessing application in two separate domains and create a domain policy that allows accessing the domain from any domain, as in this example below, it will work.
< xml version="1.0" > <!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy SYSTEM " http://www.adobe.com/xml/dtds/cross-domain-policy.dtd"> <cross-domain-policy> <allow-access-from domain="*"/> </cross-domain-policy>
Figuring Out the Application Source Code
In this example, of course we have access to the source code. Normally, attackers don t have direct access to the source code, but as we ll see, they can find the source code in two ways. Once the content is loaded, you can actually place a break point and see all the methods you have access to, as Figure 11-6 shows.
Figure 11-6. Variables window showing loaded content object Additionally, using decompiling software, the attacker can decompile the accessed application and browse through the classes (as we showed previously). See Figure 11-7.
Figure 11-7. Decompiling the accessed application
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Accessing Another Domain Through the Accessed Application
As in the application we showed you previously, an attacker could load a SWF from one domain that has access to another domain and then make unauthorized service calls. For instance, let s say that DomainA allows access to DomainB, as you can see in this cross-domain policy:
< xml version="1.0" > <!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy SYSTEM "http://www.macromedia.com/xml/dtds/cross-domain-policy.dtd"> <cross-domain-policy> <allow-access-from domain="domainB" secure="false" /> </cross-domain-policy>
In the following example, the accessed application holds a service class.
< xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <s:Application xmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" xmlns:mx= library://ns.adobe.com/flex/mx minWidth="1024" minHeight="768"> <fx:Script> <![CDATA[ import mx.controls.Alert; import mx.rpc.events.FaultEvent; import mx.rpc.events.ResultEvent; protected function service_faultHandler(event:FaultEvent):void { Alert.show("fault error: "+event.fault.faultDetail); } protected function service_resultHandler(event:ResultEvent):void { Alert.show(event.result.toString()); } ]]> </fx:Script> <fx:Declarations> <s:HTTPService id="service" url="domainB" resultFormat="text" fault="service_faultHandler(event)" result="service_resultHandler(event)" /> </fx:Declarations> </s:Application>
The accessing application can load the SWF and access the service class to make an illegal call, and then it can retrieve the data. For instance, let s assume that a site allows a certain authorized domain to make service calls, but the API is not public. If the authorized domain holds a SWF that can be accessed, you can use that SWF to gain access to the API and make unauthorized service calls. The following code shows how:
< xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <s:Application xmlns:fx="http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009" xmlns:s="library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark" xmlns:mx= library://ns.adobe.com/flex/mx minWidth="1024" minHeight="768" initialize="initializeHandler()"> <fx:Script> <![CDATA[ import mx.controls.Alert; import mx.events.FlexEvent; import mx.rpc.events.FaultEvent; import mx.rpc.events.ResultEvent;
// define variables private var loader:Loader; private var content:*; // load swf private function initializeHandler():void { loader = new Loader(); loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener (SecurityErrorEvent.SECURITY_ERROR, securityErrorHandler); loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener (Event.COMPLETE, loadContent_onComplete); loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener (IOErrorEvent.IO_ERROR, ioErrorHandler); loader.load(new URLRequest("main.swf"));
component.addChild(loader); }
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