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Figure 7-23 illustrates how all these classes work together to help the enemy turrets fire bullets. The enemy turrets are self-contained MVC systems. The game itself is also a self-contained MVC system. These two systems communicate by using events and public properties. There is some dependency, but it s well defined by the mechanics of the MVC structure.
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Figure 7-23. The enemy turret MVC system figures out whether it should fire bullets. The GameController does the job of adding the bullets to the game.
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As you know, only a controller should change a model s properties. If you look again at Figure 723, you ll notice that the turret actually has two controllers: its own TurretAIController and the GameController. It s quite acceptable for a model to have more than one controller. What s slightly unusual is that the controller is listening for a model s CHANGE events. In an MVC system, shouldn t it just be the view that listens for model events Yes, but the difference here is that the GameController is listening for events in a model from an MVC system that it created itself. The enemy turret s model, view, and controller are all objects that the GameController instantiates when it initializes the game. The turrets exist within the GameController alone as subobjects. It s not listening for events in the GameModel. Using events like this to allow sub-MVC systems to communicate with a parent controller is very efficient and helps reduce dependencies between them.
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Traveling along a fixed path
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The UFO mother ship uses the same system as the enemy turrets to fire bullets at the lander. However, unlike the turrets, it s moving. It flies in a fixed elliptical path across the planet surface, as shown in Figure 7-24.
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Figure 7-24. The enemy mother ship travels in a fixed elliptical path above the planet surface. Two pairs of values determine the position and shape of the ellipse: centerX/centerY: You need to know where on the stage the center of the ellipse will be the centerX and centerY values. For example, to place the center of the ellipse in the center of the stage, use these two values: centerX = 275; centerY = 200;
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rangeX/rangeY: You need to know how wide and how high the ellipse will be. I call this rangeX and rangeY. For example, if you want the ellipse to be 400 pixels wide and 200 pixels high, use these two values: rangeX = 200; rangeY = 100; This is similar to a radius, but unlike a circle s radius, the width and height are not the same. Figure 7-25 shows what kind of ellipse you would end up with if you used these values.
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Figure 7-25. An ellipse positioned at the center of the stage. These four values are properties of the UFO model. The GameController sets them when the game initializes. //Set the center point for the UFO's elliptical flight path _ufoModel.centerX = _caveBitmap.x + 800; _ufoModel.centerY = _caveBitmap.y + 200; //Set the range of the UFO's elliptical flight path _ufoModel.rangeX = 500; _ufoModel.rangeY = 50; This places the center of the ellipse near the top of the scrolling background, above the planet surface. The ellipse is long and narrow, so the UFO traverses a complete flight path of 1000 pixels from left to right.
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The UFO s model has a method called fly that moves the UFO along this ellipse. The GameController calls this fly method every frame to make the UFO move. public function fly():void { xPos = centerX + Math.sin(_angle) * rangeX; yPos = centerY + Math.cos(_angle) * rangeY; _angle += 0.01; } This is bit of very simple trigonometry that calculates the ellipse. By changing the amount by which the _angle value is incremented, you can alter the speed of the UFO. A lower number, like 0.005, will make it fly more slowly. A larger number, like 0.02, will make it move more quickly. This is a useful bit of code that you can use whenever you want to make an object fly on a fixed orbit. You can also dynamically change the ellipse s center and range properties based on changing game conditions. This will give the object a very organic, natural-looking motion. You ll find all the code for the UFO in the com.friendsofed.gameElements.ufo package.
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