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B.2.4 Configuring the bean
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EJB descriptors are XML files that tell the application server which classes com-
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prise your bean. They also tell the application server how to configure your bean. A single descriptor can hold configuration information for multiple beans
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APPENDIX B
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(listing B.5). The XML document type definition for the standard descriptor ejb/java.sun.com/dtd/ejb-jar_2_0.dtd. jar.xml can be downloaded at http:/ Most application servers also require vendor-specific descriptors. For example, you may have a weblogic-ejb-jar.xml file containing the WebLogic-specific configuration information. The definitions for these proprietary descriptors vary from server to server. You can edit descriptors by hand. However, most application servers and EJB development tools include tools to produce and modify the descriptors for you. Using such tools ensures validity in your descriptors, preventing potential issues and possibly even streamlining the development process.
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Listing B.5 Deployment descriptor example
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< xml version="1.0" > <!DOCTYPE ejb-jar PUBLIC '-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Enterprise JavaBeans 2.0//EN' 'http://java.sun.com/dtd/ejb-jar_2_0.dtd'> <ejb-jar> <enterprise-beans> <session> <ejb-name>BookingAgent</ejb-name> <home>BookingAgentHome</home> <remote>BookingAgent</remote> <ejb-class>BookingAgentBean</ejb-class> <session-type>Stateless</session-type> <transaction-type>Container</transaction-type> </session> <entity> <ejb-name>Booking</ejb-name> <local-home>BookingHome</local-home> <local>Booking</local> <ejb-class>BookingBean</ejb-class> <persistence-type>Container</persistence-type> <prim-key-class>java.lang.String</prim-key-class> <reentrant>False</reentrant> <cmp-version>2.x</cmp-version> <abstract-schema-name>Booking</abstract-schema-name> <cmp-field> <field-name>userId</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>date</field-name> </cmp-field> <cmp-field> <field-name>attendees</field-name> </cmp-field>
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Crafting enterprise beans
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<query> <query-method> <method-name>findByUserId</method-name> <method-params> <method-param>java.lang.String</method-param> </method-params> </query-method> <ejb-ql> <![CDATA[ SELECT OBJECT(a) FROM Booking AS a WHERE userId = 1 ]]> </ejb-ql> </query> </entity> </enterprise-beans> <assembly-descriptor> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>BookingAgent</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> <container-transaction> <method> <ejb-name>Booking</ejb-name> <method-name>*</method-name> </method> <trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute> </container-transaction> </assembly-descriptor> </ejb-jar>
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B.2.5 Packaging it
All EJB are packaged in an ejb-jar file. An ejb-jar is essentially a JAR file containing all classes for the bean s interfaces and implementation, all the bean s dependent classes, and the bean s XML descriptors. A JAR file is simply a zip file with a META-INF directory and a manifest file. A single ejb-jar file may contain one or multiple EJB components. You can also distribute a separate client ejb-jar file, though the specification does not require it. When you package the server and client components
APPENDIX B
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separately, you can reference the client JAR file in a Class-Path entry in your ejbjar s manifest file:
descriptors /META-INF/*.xml /mypackage/*.class bean classes
B.2.6 Invoking your beans from a client
Invoking an EJB may be a bit daunting at first (it was for us) but is fundamentally a cut-and-paste task. With session and entity beans, the client follows the following steps:
1 2 3 4
Create an InitialContext instance. Look up the EJB s home object in the context. Cast the home object using the narrow() method. For session beans, call a create() method. For entity beans, call a create() method or lookup an EJBObject instance using a finder method. Invoke methods on the EJBObject. If you are using stateful session beans, remember to call the remove() method and help the container conserve resources.
Listing B.6 provides source code for looking up and invoking our BookingAgent example session bean.
Listing B.6 EJB client code example
// get a client stub. InitialContext context = new InitialContext(); Object homeObject = context.lookup( BookingAgent ); BookingAgentHome agentHome = PortableRemoteObject.narrow( homeObject, BookingAgentHome.class ); BookingAgent agent = agentHome.create(); // book a trip. Date date = ...; agent.book( bitterejb , date, 20);
To invoke a message-driven bean, simply send a JMS message to the proper destination.
bibliography
Ambler, Scott. The Design of a Robust Persistence Paper for Relational Databases. Newmarket, Ontario: Ambysoft, 1997 2003. Beck, Kent; Fowler, Martin, Planning Extreme Programming. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 2000. Brooks, Fredrick P, Mythical Man Month. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1995. DeMichiel, Linda G., specification lead, Enterprise JavaBeansTM Specification Version 2.0. Palo Alto, Ca: Sun Microsystems, 2001. Eckstein, Robert, Editor, Java Enterprise Best Practices. Cambridge, MA: O Reilly & Associates, Inc., 2002. Fowler, Martin, Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code. Reading, Mass.: AddisonWesley, 1999. Fowler, Martin; Rice, David; Foemmel, Matthew; Hieatt, Edward; Mee, Robert; Stafford, Randy, Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 2002. Hunter, Jason, Java Servlet Programming. Cambridge, MA: O Reilly & Associates, Inc., 2001. Laddad, Ramnivas, AspectJ In Action. Greenwich, CT: Manning Publications, 2003. Matena, Vlada; Hapner, Mark, Enterprise JavaBeansTM Specification Version 1.0. Palo Alto, Ca: Sun Microsystems, 1998. Matena, Vlada; Hapner, Mark, Enterprise JavaBeansTM Specification Version 1.1. Palo Alto, Ca: Sun Microsystems, 1999. Monson-Haefel, Richard, Enterprise Java Beans. Cambridge, MA: O Reilly & Associates, Inc., 2000.
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