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CHAPTER
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Building Biped Robots
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can imagine your impatience the urge to skip this introduction chapter altogether, and go directly to building the robots that are shown in the next chapters of this part, which are entirely devoted to walker robots. However, you would entirely miss the essentials necessary to understand why the walkers presented in this book actually work; you would miss finding out how to let your robots leave the wheels behind them and get on their own two feet. This chapter will present the state of the art in LEGO walking biped robots. I ll introduce some basic notions of that branch of physics called statics (balancing forces) to help you develop steady biped robots that do not need to use any advanced sensor to balance, such as accelerometers, tilt sensors, or gyroscopes. The stability of those robots is guaranteed only by the hardware configuration.
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LEGO Bipedal Walking: The State of the Art
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It has been almost ten years since LEGO MINDSTORMS users like you developed various bipedal walking techniques. The numerous biped robots, created fairly successfully during those years, can be categorized as follows: Interlacing legs bipeds Jerky center of gravity (COG from now on) shifting bipeds Smooth COG shifting bipeds I ll describe these categories in detail, focusing on their level of complexity and the mechanical solutions used, with the help of some visual examples. In the next chapters you ll find the practical examples of this categorization: Quasimodo ( 2) is an interlacing legs biped, Star Wars AT-ST chicken walker ( 4) is a jerky COG shifting biped, while the Omni-Biped ( 5) is a smooth COG shifting biped.
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Interlacing Legs Bipeds
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Robots that fall in the category of interlacing legs bipeds generally use the simplest walking technique. In other words, you must figure out what is the best way to put one foot in front of another. The solution is usually a cam shaft (see Figure 1-4c, d, and f). With the parts provided in the NXT retail set, you can easily build a cam shaft using the holes in the 24-tooth or the 40-tooth gear (see Omni-Biped s legs in 5). You must attach the legs to an off-center
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CHAPTER 1 BUILDING BIPED ROBOTS
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hole to achieve what s called eccentric motion. As an alternative, you can use the black 3-long liftarms (as in Quasimodo, 2). The particular shape of the feet stabilize a robot of this category (see Figure 1-1a) feet interlace each other (hence the name of this category). Usually, in this kind of robot, the center of gravity is not shifted from side to side. So, you must pay close attention to designing the structure in such a way that the COG projection on the ground always falls inside the area that supports the feet, during each phase of walking. This condition must hold when the feet are on the ground together, but also when one of them is lifted from the ground. Figure 1-1 shows the various walking phases. In a, both feet are on the ground; in b and c, the right foot begins to step forward and is lifted from the ground, leaving all the weight loaded on the left foot and reducing the support area to only the left foot; in d both feet are on the ground again. Next, the process starts again with the left foot leaving the ground and stepping forward.
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Figure 1-1. Interlacing legs biped footprints in the various phases of walking The preceding approach suffers from the slackness of the LEGO joints: the legs tend to bend inside and the feet do not lift completely from the ground. To solve this problem, you can place a wedge in the inner side of the feet as shown in Figure 1-2c, or you can provide your biped with a sort of hip tendon made with rubber bands or LEGO parts, as shown in Figure 1-2d. All bipeds in nature have similar muscles to keep their equilibrium, so that they can walk steadily.
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