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CHAPTER 3 FINITE STATE MACHINES
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while ( event==0 ) { if (ButtonPressed(BTNCENTER,true)==1) { event = TOUCH; while(ButtonPressed(BTNCENTER,true)==1); TextOut(5,LCD_LINE6,"Button"); break; } else if (CurrentTick() > time_offset + TIMEOUT) { event = TIMER_ELAPSE; TextOut(5,LCD_LINE6,"Elapse"); break; } } return event; } The WaitEvent() function waits for two kinds of events: for the timer to elapse and for someone to click the orange button. It polls continuously whether the orange button has been clicked or if the timer has run out; when one of these events has occurred (the event variable is assigned a value other than 0), the function returns a different number (the constants TOUCH or TIMER_ELAPSE) according to the event that occurred. Before going forward, as a curiosity, look at Listing 3-3, which draws the bar on the NXT screen. Listing 3-3. The Code to Draw a Bar of Filled Squares on the NXT Display sub Meter(short level) { ClearScreen(); for(short i=0; i<level; i++) //draw filled rectangles { //RectOut(MARGIN+OFFSET*i,LCD_LINE4,LENGTH,LENGTH,false); for (short j=0; j<=LENGTH; j++) { LineOut(MARGIN+OFFSET*i+j,LCD_LINE4,MARGIN+OFFSET*i+j,LCD_LINE4+LENGTH); } } } The NXC language provides us with many high-level graphic functions to exploit all the NXT screen capabilities. For example, we can use the RectOut function inside a for loop to draw the number of empty squares specified by level, or we can use the LineOut function inside a nested for loop to get a square filled with black pixels. You can obtain filled squares by drawing as many lines as the length of the square. On the other hand, by removing the comment on the RectOut function line and commenting out the nested for loop, you can draw empty squares, thus speeding up the NXT screen redrawing.
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CHAPTER 3 FINITE STATE MACHINES
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Now that you have seen a particular FSM implementation, you might wonder how to program any FSM you like. I ll explain that after the skeleton code in Listing 3-4. Listing 3-4. General Structure to Implement an FSM task main() { //Initialization of hardware and state variables //main exits, leaving space in scheduler for other tasks } //sensor monitoring tasks task SensorMonitor() { Follows(main); //tells the NXT to execute this task after the main has exited while(true) { //read sensors //modify global variables to make state transitions } } task FSM() { Follows(main); //tells the NXT to execute this task after the main has exited while(true) { switch ( state ) { case STATE_ONE: //actions to be performed in this state //the state transition is made //assigning a new value to the state variable state = ANOTHER_STATE; break; case STATE_TWO: [...] break; case STATE_THREE: [...]
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CHAPTER 3 FINITE STATE MACHINES
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break; //put how many states you want } } } In the code in Listing 3-4, the main task simply performs sensor and variable initialization, and then exits, leaving the execution to all the other tasks. You could use separate tasks to monitor the sensors continuously, to refresh the NXT display, and to run the FSM itself. In a more general situation than the one in the saturating counter example, a program that implements an FSM can be composed of more tasks running simultaneously.
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Note You ll learn about multitasking programs in 5, when I discuss the Omni-Biped software.
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The sensor-monitoring tasks would communicate with the FSM task by using global variables, via function calls, or by passing variables as arguments. The most important task is the one implementing the FSM: the whole behavior of our FSM is in fact coded inside this task. My purpose was just to whet your appetite; I won t show any other example here. I ll discuss an FSM implementation in detail in the program for the NXT Turtle, described in 6.
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Decision Tables
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For completeness, a final topic remains to be explained. For example, consider the problem pictured in Figure 3-5. You have a motorized arm that can swivel around by a maximum of 90 degrees. At the lower limit of its run, it has a limit switch, so that the arm can be brought to its zero position at every system startup. The arm has only four allowed positions, or states: 0: full down (limit switch pressed) 1: down 2: mid 3: up
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