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Listing 4-6 shows the second subroutine to make your imposing AT-ST take steps. Listing 4-6. Making the AT-ST Take Steps sub Step(int newState, bool slow) { int speed = 65; if(newState!=legsState) { if (slow) speed = 45; RotateMotorPID(LEGS,speed,legsAngles[newState+3*legsState],30,20,80); legsState = newState; } }
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CHAPTER 4 NXT AT-ST
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RotateMotorPID is an advanced version of the NXC function RotateMotor. The basic function is the same, except you can specify three additional parameters: P, I, and D. Leave them for now; we ll come back to them briefly in 7.
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Here you can see a good example of implementing a decision table: a technique associated with FSMs, which you saw in theory in 3. In fact, the Step subroutine accepts as an argument the variable newState, which is used together with legsState (the variable that keeps track of the legs state) to index the table legsAngles. Inside this table you find the appropriate angles to rotate legs from legsState to newState. A table can be viewed as an array with two dimensions in other words, as a matrix. In NXC, you can declare multidimensional arrays. However, working with them is tricky and not worth the effort for this simple application, so it is preferable to implement the decision table as a single dimensional array. The legsAngles decision table and corresponding array declaration are shown in Table 4-1 and Listing 4-7. Table 4-1. legsAngles Decision Table with the Angles to Move the Legs
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newState oldState LEFT CENTER RIGHT
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-S 0 S
RIGHT
-2*S -S 0
Listing 4-7. The Array Implementing Decision Table 4-1 const int legsAngles[] = { 0 , -STEP_TURN, -2*STEP_TURN, STEP_TURN, 0 , -STEP_TURN, 2*STEP_TURN, STEP_TURN, 0 };
For example, if you want to go from LEFT (which oldState is equal to) to RIGHT (passed as the newState argument), you d use this code: RotateMotorPID(LEGS,speed,legsAngles[newState+3*legsState],30,20,80);
CHAPTER 4 NXT AT-ST
The preceding code rotates the legs motor by the angle -2*STEP_TURN, which is found in the legsAngles table at row 0 (LEFT is defined as 0; see the program definitions at the beginning of this section) and column 2 (RIGHT is an alias for 2). To be clear, legsAngles is a one-dimensional array, indexed as follows: legsAngles[column+3*row] row and column can be 0, 1, or 2. In the case of this example, the index value is 2+3*0 = 2, and shows where to find the needed angle. You can see other example cases in Table 4-2. Table 4-2. Examples of How the Stepping Decision Table Works
Old State
LEFT(0) CENTER(1) RIGHT(2) CENTER(1)
New State
CENTER(1) RIGHT(2) LEFT(0) CENTER(1)
Index Value
index = 1+3*0 = 1 index = 2+3*1 = 5 index = 0+3*2 = 6 index = 1+3*1 = 4
Corresponding Angle
(-STEP_TURN) (-STEP_TURN) (2*STEP_TURN) (0), as one would expect
Caution Array indexes are 0-based; for example, the first element of array is array[0], and the last
element is at an index that equals ArrayLen(array)-1.
I find this solution cleaner and more elegant than using a nested if or a switch statement that would result in much messier code. Now you have an idea of how low-level routines (to manage AT-ST mechanics) work. This software represents the skeleton for any program you would write for your AT-ST, without having to worry about low-level mechanical management.
Building Your Personal AT-ST
Before you throw yourself into building a robot, you should read the following brief notes. To get the best robot appearance, I used some extra parts besides the NXT retail set parts. They aren t hard-to-find elements, and they re used just to embellish the model. Don t worry; the robot s functionality is not compromised if you don t have these elements. Figure 4-4 shows the parts needed, and Table 4-3 points out which parts are not included in the retail set. Follow the instructions carefully to know which steps to skip and which parts to replace.
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