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Writing a Single-Task Program
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Omni-Biped s behavior is simple. It starts walking straight until it sees an obstacle with the Ultrasonic Sensor; at that point, it stops, realigns the legs, and draws back until the obstacle goes out of view. Then it starts a turning maneuver, choosing the direction randomly. The turning lasts only a few moments, or until another object comes in sight. After the turn, Omni-Biped starts walking straight again. As explained and shown before in Figure 5-2, the legs must always be aligned correctly before the program is started. The robot will realign the legs automatically after every walk, to bring them back to the starting position. First, you ll see the single-task program that implements this simple behavior. As usual, the program starts defining the preprocessor macros (see Listing 5-3), useful to maintaining and modifying the program easily. Listing 5-3. The Initial Definitions of the Omni-Biped Program and Global Variable Declaration #define #define #define #define #define #define HALF_STEP 540 FULL_STEP 1080 RIGHT_LEG OUT_B LEFT_LEG OUT_A BOTH_LEGS OUT_AB EYES IN_1
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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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#define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define #define
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NEAR 12 //cm FAR 40 //cm LEFT -1 RIGHT 1 FORWARD 0 WALK_SPEED 90 ALIGN_SPEED 60 TURN_TIME 100 BACKUP_TIME 800 TURN_FILE "Turn.rso" LEFT_FILE "Left.rso" RIGHT_FILE "Right.rso" FORWARD_FILE "Forward.rso"
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The various subroutines and functions are shown in Listing 5-4. There you can find the functions to initialize the NXT I/O ports, to display text or numbers on the NXT screen, and to realign legs to the ground after every walk. Listing 5-4. The Functions of the Omni-Biped Program sub Biped_init () { ResetRotationCount (BOTH_LEGS); SetSensorLowspeed (EYES); } void Smessage( string msg ) { TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5," TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5,msg); } void Nmessage( int n ) { TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5," NumOut(0,LCD_LINE5,n); }
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sub AnnounceDir ( int dir ) { if (dir!=0) { PlayFileEx (TURN_FILE, 4, false); Wait(450); }
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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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if (dir==LEFT) PlayFileEx (LEFT_FILE, 4, false); if (dir==FORWARD) PlayFileEx (FORWARD_FILE, 4, false); if (dir==RIGHT) PlayFileEx (RIGHT_FILE, 4, false); Wait(200); } sub RealignLegs() { Smessage("Realigning"); long right_count, left_count; //computes angular distance from the initial leg position right_count = abs(MotorRotationCount(RIGHT_LEG) % FULL_STEP); left_count = abs(MotorRotationCount(LEFT_LEG) % FULL_STEP); //choose the direction to align the right leg, //turning motor the least possible if (right_count<HALF_STEP) OnRev (RIGHT_LEG, ALIGN_SPEED); else OnFwd (RIGHT_LEG, ALIGN_SPEED); //wait for the leg to be aligned while (right_count>0) { right_count = abs(MotorRotationCount (RIGHT_LEG) % FULL_STEP); } Off(RIGHT_LEG); //choose the direction to align the left leg, //turning motor the least possible angle if (left_count<HALF_STEP) OnRev (LEFT_LEG, ALIGN_SPEED); else OnFwd (LEFT_LEG, ALIGN_SPEED); //wait for the leg to be aligned while (left_count>0) { left_count = abs(MotorRotationCount (LEFT_LEG) % FULL_STEP); } Off(LEFT_LEG); }
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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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The Biped_init() subroutine is in charge of resetting the motor s rotation count registers and setting up the NXT input port to read the Ultrasonic Sensor. You use the two functions Smessage(string msg) and Nmessage(int n) to clear just a line of the NXT screen and to display a text message or a number, respectively. To clear a line, it is enough to output a blank string, such as TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5," "). The AnnounceDir subroutine makes the robot say in which direction it is going to walk. The most interesting subroutine is the RealignLegs one, used to bring the legs back in the position they were at the program startup; it is worth a detailed explanation. First, you compute the angular distance from the initial shaft position with abs(MotorRotationCount(X_LEG) % FULL_STEP). The binary operator % is called the modulo operator, whose result is the remainder of an integer division. For example: 3 % 2 = 1 since 3 = 2 1 + 1, 6 % 2 = 0 since 6 = 2 3 + 0, 347 % 5 = 2 since 347 = 69 5 + 2. So, the motor on the leg to be realigned is started in a direction that minimizes the rotation to reach the desired position. This is done simply by checking if the angle is less than half a step, or not: if the first case, the motor is turned on by OnRev, otherwise by OnFwd. After the motor is started, the subroutine uses the modulo operator to check if the leg motor has turned by an angle that is an integer multiple of the degrees needed to make a full step. The condition is verified when MotorRotationCount (RIGHT_LEG) % FULL_STEP becomes 0: when the leg returns back to its starting position, the motor is stopped. Once the right leg is aligned, the subroutine repeats the same procedure for the left leg.
You will notice that the RealignLegs subroutine is executed many times to resynchronize the legs Tip
after a stop. Realigning legs one at a time (the program runs a single task) is not the best solution. Instead, you could use two tasks running together to realign the legs simultaneously. This method is shown later in the multitask version of the Omni-Biped program.
Now that you know all the subroutines, look at Listing 5-5 to see how the main task uses them. Listing 5-5. The main Task Code for the Omni-Biped task main () { int timer = 0, direction; //initializes sensors and direction variable Biped_init(); direction = FORWARD;
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