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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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Figure 5-4. Using hysteresis, you can filter the flickering of the distance measurements. This is exactly the solution used in the Omni-Biped program, where you are using two thresholds, NEAR and FAR. In the graph, when the distance reading (top graph) goes below the NEAR threshold, the obstacle Boolean variable (plotted in the bottom graph) becomes true (point a). In other words, when the measured distance is low, the robot assumes that an object is near. As you can see, the measurement flickering about the NEAR threshold does not influence the obstacle variable; this holds also for the fluctuation inside the band delimited by NEAR and FAR. The Boolean variable obstacle becomes false only when the distance measure will be higher than the FAR threshold (point b). Finally, the obstacle variable again receives the value true only if the distance reading goes lower than the NEAR threshold (a label). This way, you can get a smoother-working system, filtering the measurement fluctuations.
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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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Recall what I said before: a system has hysteresis when the path to go from state A to B is different from the path to go from B to A. Now that you ve seen the preceding example, you can understand the graph in Figure 5-5.
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Figure 5-5. The hysteresis cycle connecting the distance read by the sensor to the obstacle detection variable. The path going from A to B is different from the path going from B to A. The x axis shows the distance reading of the Ultrasonic Sensor. The y axis displays the value of the Boolean variable obstacle, which can be true or false. Imagine that obstacle is initially false and that the distance value is higher than FAR. This means that no object is in sight, and this state is labeled B. So, imagine that you are moving toward 0 along the x axis. According to what you saw before, when the distance goes below the NEAR threshold, the obstacle value switches to true (compare the event labeled a in Figure 5-4). You have just traveled from the state B to state A, following the darker oriented path on the graph. Now imagine starting from state A: the obstacle variable is true and the distance is below the NEAR threshold. Start following the gray path; when the distance increases beyond the NEAR threshold, nothing happens. Only when the distance grows higher than the FAR threshold, obstacle becomes false, and you are back in state B. This corresponds to the event labeled b in Figure 5-4. Finally, it is easier to do it than to say it. The code to implement hysteresis is simple, and reusable with all kinds of sensors.
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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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d = SensorUS (EYES); //hysteresis cycle if (d < NEAR) obstacle = true; else if (d > FAR ) obstacle = false; Simple and effective, isn t it
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Writing a Multitask Program
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You can transform the program for the Omni-Biped to use multitasking. The overall behavior will remain the same, except that the legs will be aligned simultaneously, and not one after another. The preprocessor definitions are the same as before for the single-task program, and so they are omitted. In Listing 5-6 you can view the first part of the multitask program. Listing 5-6. The Declaration of Global Variables and the Functions of the Multitask Program for the Omni-Biped mutex Rmotor, Lmotor, display; bool obstacle, Rreset, Lreset, play; int direction; void Smessage(string msg) { Acquire(display); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5," TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5,msg); Release(display); } void Nmessage(int n) { Acquire(display); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5," NumOut(0,LCD_LINE5,n); Release(display); }
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sub AnnounceDir ( int dir ) { if (dir!=FORWARD) { PlayFileEx (TURN_FILE, 4, false); Wait(450); }
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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
if (dir==LEFT) { PlayFileEx (LEFT_FILE, 4, false); Smessage("TURN LEFT"); } if (dir==FORWARD) { PlayFileEx (FORWARD_FILE, 4, false); Smessage("FORWARD"); } if (dir==RIGHT) { PlayFileEx (RIGHT_FILE, 4, false); Smessage("TURN RIGHT"); } Wait(500); }
sub Biped_init () { ResetRotationCount (BOTH_LEGS); SetSensorLowspeed (EYES); obstacle = false; Rreset = false; Lreset = false; play = false; direction = FORWARD; } sub RealignLegs () { Rreset = true; Lreset = true; Smessage("REALIGN LEGS"); while (Rreset || Lreset) Wait(100); Wait(50); Smessage("DONE"); } sub AcquireLegs () { Acquire(Rmotor); Acquire(Lmotor); } sub ReleaseLegs ()
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