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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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{ Off (BOTH_LEGS); Release(Rmotor); Release(Lmotor); } In the preceding code the global variables are declared, together with the mutex variables that will act as semaphores, to regulate the concurrent tasks access to the shared resources.
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You should note that global variables are a good way to let many tasks communicate with one Tip another. On the other hand, they must be seen as shared resources, so the access to those variables must be well disciplined to avoid corrupting their value, in case more than one task wants to write them. Notice that such a conflict does not exist, if a task only writes a global variable, while the others just read it.
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The Smessage and Nmessage functions are a bit different from the previous version, because the NXT display is now a shared output device. So, you must put the TextOut and NumOut API functions inside a critical section, delimited by the Acquire(display) and Release(display) statements. The AnnounceDir and Biped_init functions are pretty much the same as before. However, the RealignLegs subroutine is completely different. It doesn t move motors directly, but is used to discipline the realignment tasks access to the motors. Before continuing the discussion, read the code in Listing 5-7. Listing 5-7. The main() and Walk() Tasks of the Omni-Biped Multitask Program task main () { Biped_init(); } task Walk () { int timer; Follows (main); while (true) { AcquireLegs(); AnnounceDir (direction); OnFwdSyncEx (BOTH_LEGS, WALK_SPEED, sign(direction)*90, RESET_NONE); if (direction==FORWARD) { while (!obstacle) Wait(50); } else { timer = 0;
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while (!obstacle && timer<TURN_TIME) { timer++; } } ReleaseLegs(); RealignLegs(); if (obstacle) { Smessage("BACKWARD"); AcquireLegs(); OnRevSyncEx (BOTH_LEGS, WALK_SPEED, 0, RESET_NONE); while (obstacle) Wait(50); ReleaseLegs(); RealignLegs(); } if (direction==FORWARD) direction = 1-2*Random(2); else direction = FORWARD; } } In this multitask program, the main task simply calls the Biped_init subroutine and exits. This leaves space for all other concurrent tasks in the program that contain the statement Follows(main). The concurrent tasks are as follows: Sight: Reads the Ultrasonic Sensor continuously and shares information about obstacles using the global variable obstacle, the output of the hysteresis cycle filter. Walk: Contains the loop corresponding to the main loop in the single-thread program. The robot goes straight until it sees an obstacle. It then backs up until the obstacle fades away, turns randomly, and then starts the loop again. AlignRightLeg and AlignLeftLeg: This time, the legs are reset in separate tasks, so that the duties can be accomplished simultaneously, thus saving time. As mentioned before, some of these tasks share the same resources. In particular, Walk shares the motors with AlignRightLeg and AlignLeftLeg. To avoid conflicts, when one of these tasks wants to use the motors, it must first acquire the corresponding mutex, use the motors inside the critical section, and release the mutex when done. For example, the Walk task calls the AcquireLegs() and ReleaseLegs() functions (see Listing 5-6) to enclose the critical section where it uses the motors. In Listing 5-8, you can see the code of one of the alignment tasks (the code for the other leg is similar and thus omitted). Listing 5-8. The Code of the Task to Realign the Right Leg Position task AlignRightLeg () { Follows(main); long right_count; while (true)
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{ while (!Rreset) Wait(100); Acquire (Rmotor); right_count = abs(MotorRotationCount (RIGHT_LEG) % FULL_STEP); if (right_count<HALF_STEP) OnRev (RIGHT_LEG, ALIGN_SPEED); else OnFwd (RIGHT_LEG, ALIGN_SPEED); while (right_count>0) { right_count = abs(MotorRotationCount (RIGHT_LEG) % FULL_STEP); } Off(RIGHT_LEG); Release (Rmotor); Rreset = false; Wait(10); } } These realignment tasks run forever, and they would try to realign the legs continuously, conflicting with the Walk task. So, they must be kept quiet until realignment is required. To accomplish this and also to avoid any unwanted behavior, use the mutex-like Lreset and Rreset Boolean variables.
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