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CHAPTER 5 OMNI-BIPED
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be useful in your future projects. Finally, we analyzed the operation, the uses, and the implementation of the hysteresis cycle. Having three sensor ports left, there s plenty of space for add-ons and new features. Don t forget the third motor in your box that is waiting for action! The following exercises might also inspire you to build some new type of robot. If your creativity needs to be sparked some more, keep on reading the next chapters.
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Exercise 5-1. Hardware Ideas
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Rebuild the leg frames to shape a chicken-like leg, with a reverse bent knee. Modify the motor placement accordingly, to keep using the motors as structural support. Add a tail and a head (like a dinosaur) that would follow the legs movement, helping the COG shifting. For example, when the robot is leaning left, the tail would be bent left, and the same for the right side, balancing the robot. You might drive the tail with the third motor or use the leg motors themselves. After having read the AT-ST instructions in 4, try to add sensors and modify the software to let your robot reset its leg position automatically at program startup. Don t let that third motor go to waste! After having read 7, you can use its fetching arm as a starting idea to develop a grabber for Omni-Biped. Could you give it the ability to find objects autonomously The world is full of line-following robots on wheels. There aren t that many line-following walkers. There s no need to say a word more. Do it!
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Exercise 5-2. Software Ideas
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Using the multitask version of the software, add new tasks to play a melody while walking, and display animation. Be careful when using the mutex variables to synchronize display access for animation and string messages, and voice announcements with music. After having read 3 about FSMs and 6 about the NXT Turtle, try to give the Omni-Biped an autonomous behavior. You can use as state names (and corresponding functionality) Lazy, Normal, Worried, and Dancing; transition events among states could be an incoming obstacle, a sharp sound, a sound pattern, or a timer elapsing. The robot in Lazy state could stand still, performing some random movement; when it senses a sharp sound, its state could become Worried and it would walk a bit. If the sounds continue around it, the Dancing state could be triggered, and the robot would eventually start to dance. In Normal state, finally, it could walk, avoiding obstacles. These are just a few ideas, but you can customize the robot s behavior as you prefer.
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CHAPTER
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NXT Turtle
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fter the bipeds, it s time to double the leg count. In this chapter, you ll bring a robotic turtle to life. Once built, it will look as shown in Figure 6-1, if you power the NXT with the LEGO rechargeable battery. The NXT is in fact a LEGO unit that s taller than normal, because the battery pack adds thickness.
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Figure 6-1. The NXT Turtle, in the version including the rechargeable battery
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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
Quadruped Walking
Balancing a quadruped is simpler than balancing a biped, that s for sure. However, the legs must move in sync to clear the COG bounds that we discussed in 1. Here we are talking about a generic quadruped robot that uses only its four feet as supporting points that is a robot, whose legs are long, and whose body is far from the ground. Figure 6-2 shows the techniques a quadruped robot could use to walk straight assuming that the legs on each side are synchronized. This means that each front leg is coupled with the back leg on the same side. When one foot is lifted from the ground, the other foot is touching the ground; when a leg moves forward, the other is brought backwards, as shown in Figure 6-3. Every leg is given two degrees of freedom (DOF): the first to move the foot up and down, the second to move the leg back and forth. You can do the coupling using mechanical parts that connect the legs directly or drive the leg motors together, assuming you have separate motors to move them. About the motors: even if you have to give each leg two DOF (one to raise and lower the leg, one to move the leg back and forth) you don t necessarily need two motors per leg. In fact, you can give each leg two DOF with just a motor, using a particular cammed mechanism, or you can even move the couple of two-DOF legs on the same side with a single motor. The latter is precisely what happens in the NXT Turtle.
Figure 6-2. Quadruped robot straight walking scheme In Figure 6-2e, the robot has all feet on the ground and the supporting area is wide, containing the COG of the robot (indicated as a star). This is the steadier state of the robot.
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