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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
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The NXT Turtle hides in its simplicity many hardware and software inspirations. Other less realistic approaches to building walking legged robots exist: one motor to lean aside, the others to advance, or a cammed mechanism that keeps legs parallel to the body. The actual mechanism is smooth, effective, and realistic a pleasure to see working! You can reuse this technique in other walking robots, varying leg angle and length. On the software side, you were introduced to a good example of how to implement a finite state machine (FSM) (see 3) to simulate a simple autonomous behavior, so that the turtle can change its mood depending on what s happening, becoming quiet, hungry, scared, or bored. If you annoy it too much, it could decide to run away, but if nothing happens for a while, it will eventually turn around, looking for food. If it gets too bored, it could fall asleep!
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Programming the Turtle
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The turtle crawls around using the same motor configuration as a wheeled bot. That way, you can start trying your turtle movements with a few lines of code, or the NXT-G Move Blocks. You can even guide the model with a Bluetooth remote application running on a PC, PDA, or cell phone. After having remote-controlled the turtle a bit, you can turn to something more serious. Now you ll see how to write a program to make the turtle walk while avoiding obstacles. In the second program, you ll see how to make the turtle follow lines. Finally, in the third, complex program, you ll give the turtle a breath of life, implementing an autonomous behavior with a FSM. Your turtle will behave like a real one, plus make some additional unnatural but funny sounds.
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The first program for the turtle implements the simple behavior described in the introduction paragraph and shown in the flow chart in Figure 6-4. The turtle walks straight until it sees a near object; it retracts its head and walks backward until the object is far enough away. Once the sight line is clear, the turtle turns in a random direction, gets its head out of its shell, and begins to walk straight again. In Figure 6-4, the gray dashed arrow pointing at the FINISH label means that the loop is perpetual, but the program can be eventually stopped by pressing the dark gray stop button on the NXT, when the NXT power-off timer elapses or the batteries run dry.
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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
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Figure 6-4. The flow chart of the first simple program for the turtle
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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
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Now you ll see how the behavior described before can be translated into NXC code. In Listing 6-1 you can read the code of this first program for the turtle. Listing 6-1. First Program for the Turtle // aliases #define R_LEGS OUT_A #define L_LEGS OUT_C #define LEGS OUT_AC #define HEAD OUT_B #define EYES IN_2 #define MIC IN_1 #define LINE IN_3 #define NEAR 10 #define FAR 30 #define TURN_TIME SEC_4 #define IN -1 #define OUT 1 // global variables short head_state; unsigned long start_time; // Subroutine to move head IN or OUT sub MoveHead ( short position ) { int t; // move head only if the desired position // is different from the actual state if (head_state != position) { t = MotorRotationCount(HEAD); PlayFile("! Blips 19.rso"); // start motor in desired direction OnFwd(HEAD,60*sign(position)); Wait(80); // sense if the motor is stalled while( abs(t-MotorRotationCount(HEAD))>7 ) { t = MotorRotationCount(HEAD); Wait(50); } Off(HEAD); // update head state with actual position head_state = position; } }
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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
task main(){ //init sensors SetSensorSound(MIC); SetSensorLowspeed(EYES); SetSensorLight(LINE); // extract head head_state = IN; MoveHead(OUT); while (true) { //go straight OnFwdSync(LEGS,100,0); ClearScreen(); TextOut(30,LCD_LINE3,"Go!"); //wait for an object to come near while (SensorUS(EYES) > NEAR); //stop and retract the head Float (LEGS); MoveHead(IN); //back up OnRevSync(LEGS,100,0); ClearScreen(); TextOut(20,LCD_LINE3,"Run away..."); Wait(SEC_3); //wait for the object to get far enough while (SensorUS(EYES) < FAR); //stop and extract head Float (LEGS); MoveHead(OUT); // choose a random direction and turn if (Random(2)==1) { ClearScreen(); TextOut(30,LCD_LINE3,"Turn right"); OnRevSync(LEGS,100,80); }
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