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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
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BOOLEAN OPERATORS
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How do you express complicated logical conditions for if, while, and until statements If you want to check for two conditions to be verified together, use the AND operator &&. For example, you can translate the condition if the sun is shining and the temperature is warm, go out without an umbrella as follows: if ( sun == SHINING && temperature > TWENTY_DEGREES ) { // go out without an umbrella } If you want to check if any of the conditions are verified, you have to use the operator OR ||. To negate a condition, use the operator NOT (represented by the exclamation mark !). For example, if your condition is if the sun is not shining or the temperature is cold, wear a sweater, you have to use the operator NOT ! and the operator OR ||, and the code would be as follows: if ( sun != SHINING || temperature < TEN_DEGREES ) { // wear a sweater } You can put the negation operator ( ! ) before a condition or a Boolean variable to negate it, transforming it to true if it was false, and vice versa. For example, the condition (sun != SHINING) is equivalent to !(sun == SHINING). Furthermore, two important laws hold about Boolean algebra: the De Morgan Laws. Let A and B be two Boolean conditions. These two laws follow: !(A && B) is equal to (!A || !B) !(A || B) is equal to (!A && !B) For example, let s see how to apply the second law to the preceding expression: until( (CurrentTick()-start_time)>TURN_TIME || SensorUS(EYES)<NEAR ); Remembering that until(condition) is equal to while(!condition), the preceding is equal to the following: while( !( (CurrentTick()-start_time)>TURN_TIME || SensorUS(EYES)<NEAR ) ); Applying the second De Morgan Law, you can transform it into this: while ((CurrentTick()-start_time)<=TURN_TIME && SensorUS(EYES)>=NEAR); Try to replace it in the first program for the turtle and verify that it works exactly the same.
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Finally, when the waiting is done, the head is brought out again, and the program restarts from the beginning of the external while(true) loop.
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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
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Line Following
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The second program is a nice application for a walker vehicle of a line-following algorithm, well-known to many long-standing LEGO MINDSTORMS users. The weird thing is that the algorithm presented here allows the turtle to follow the lines only going backward. This isn t surprising. In fact, the Light Sensor used to detect the black line on the white surfaces is mounted in the back of the turtle behind its turning center. Start thinking about following a path going forward, but say you have your eyes on the nape of your neck: you would see what s behind you, not what s coming in front of you! Your turtle is the same way, because the Light Sensor to see the black line is on the back. Thus, it can follow lines only walking backwards. At the beginning of the program, you are asked to set two thresholds. Pressing the NXT left arrow, you store the low threshold; pressing the right arrow, you store the high threshold; and pressing the orange button, you accept the settings. Only at this point does the line-following algorithm start. To understand how the line-following algorithm works, look at Figure 6-5. This composite figure shows how the two thresholds low and high are used (see Figure 6-5a), and the value of the Light Sensor reading, depending on its position.
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Figure 6-5. Composite figure to explain the line-following algorithm
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CHAPTER 6 NXT TURTLE
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The turtle follows the black line going backward. It turns right if the color seen by the sensor is black (Figure 6-5b), it goes straight if the reading is gray (Figure 6-5c), and turns left if the reading is white (Figure 6-5d). This way, the turtle can follow the right edge of a black line on white ground, or the left edge of a white line on dark ground. The line-following program is shown in Listing 6-2. Listing 6-2. The Program for the Turtle to Do Line-Following #define #define #define #define #define R_LEGS OUT_A L_LEGS OUT_C LEGS OUT_AC LIGHT IN_3 TOLERANCE 3
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// this macro clears a line of the display #define ClearLine(line) TextOut(0,line," int low=30, high=50; void Tracking_init () { bool done = false; SetSensorLight(LIGHT); ClearScreen(); // display menu TextOut(0,LCD_LINE6," Set TextOut(0,LCD_LINE7,"dark
Set"); light");
until(done) { TextOut(0,LCD_LINE2,"Reading: NumOut(50,LCD_LINE2,Sensor(LIGHT));
// if you press the NXT left arrow button... if (ButtonPressed(BTNLEFT,true)) { // ...you are setting the low threshold low = Sensor(LIGHT) + TOLERANCE; ClearLine(LCD_LINE8); NumOut(8,LCD_LINE8,low); NumOut(75,LCD_LINE8,high); while (ButtonPressed(BTNLEFT,true)); }
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