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However, your turtle is easy to tame. When it is in SCARED mood, try to keep your hand near its eyes, so it can see you. When a certain amount of time has passed, it recovers from the fright and tries to pull its head out slowly, because it begins to trust you. Don t let it down, poor shy turtle! If you scare it with a noise during this taming phase, the turtle will get back in SCARED mood. If this delicate phase passes with success, the turtle is TRUSTFUL and will eat directly from your hand. Of course, this is fiction: the NXT Turtle can not eat any grass, and the fact that it eats when tamed is just an imitation of what a real turtle would do. Explaining the turtle s behavior in words is easy, while its software implementation requires a bit of patience. In Listing 6-3 is the turtle program, which shapes the behavior described earlier. The program uses multitasking and is a practical example of an FSM, explained in 3. This long program is commented to help the understanding. It is divided into many sections, labeled with commented headings: Timer-related functions: Here you can see the functions to generate random times and to reset the timer, using the technique you saw in the first turtle program. Subroutines to walk: Here are the simple subroutines to make the turtle walk and turn, using the OnFwdSync/OnRevSync NXC API functions. Subroutines to move the head, to eat, and to tremble: The subroutine to move the head is the same as the one seen in the simple program for the turtle. The eating sequence is written to be as realistic as possible: the turtle produces biting, chewing, gulping, and burping sounds to accompany the neck movements. The shivering is obtained by switching leg motors into forward and reverse quickly. Functions to initialize the turtle and show its mood: The initializing function is used to set up input ports, to move the head out, and to set the turtle s initial mood. The mood is shown by the appropriate function that prints information on the NXT screen. Subroutines describing actions for the various moods: The turtle executes different actions in each mood it can have. In this section, the actions for every mood are coded into their corresponding subroutine. You ll find their structure quite similar to one another: at the beginning, new random times are generated, to trigger the timed events (such as boredom time, hunger time, recovery time in Figure 6-6). Then, the actions involving the motors are performed. You can also find while/until loops, used to wait for multiple events, such as the timer elapsing or the sensor readings loud_noise or near_object. Then the mood variable is changed according to the occurred events, for the FSM to work. Turtle tasks: In this last section you find the code of the various tasks. There is the main task, the task that implements the FSM, the task to monitor the Ultrasonic Sensor readings, the one for the Sound Sensor, and the last used just to display the turtle s biological clock NXT screen. In effect, the time shown is the TIMER macro value that holds the difference between the current system time and the timer_start value. The value of this last variable is updated with the actual system time (as the timer reset action explained in the first program) before any waiting performed in the various states.
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Listing 6-3. The NXC Program for the Turtle That Implements the Autonomous Behavior // I/O aliases #define LEGS OUT_AC #define HEAD OUT_B #define EYES IN_2 #define MIC IN_1 #define LINE IN_3 // various constant definitions #define NEAR 10 #define FAR 30 #define IN -1 #define OUT 1 #define SOUND_HEAD_OUT 1 #define SOUND_HEAD_IN 2 #define SOUND_YAWN 3 // mean #define #define #define #define #define #define #define times definitions BOREDOM_MEAN_TIME TURN_MEAN_TIME SLEEP_MEAN_TIME WANDER_MEAN_TIME RECOVERY_MEAN_TIME TAMING_MEAN_TIME HUNGER_MEAN_TIME
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// possible moods of the turtle #define QUIET 0 #define BORED 1 #define SCARED 2 #define ANNOYED 3 #define HUNGRY 4 #define TRUSTFUL 5 // macros #define ClearLine(line) TextOut(0,line," #define TIMER (CurrentTick()-timer_start) // global variables bool near_object, loud_noise; mutex sound_sem; unsigned long timer_start; short head_state, times_bored, times_scared, mood;
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