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Figure 7-2. The underactuated grabber mechanism of the LEGO submarine 8299. The piston first closes the grabber and then raises it. Now you know the state-of-the-art in underactuated LEGO grabbers. Among the many unofficial LEGO robots featuring underactuated grabbers are Ben Williamson s FetchBot (1998), Jonathan Knudsen s Minerva (1999), and Philippe Hurbain s Barrel Collector Robot (2003), all based on the RCX system. The Mine Sweeper becomes part of that unofficial LEGO robots rank it uses the same principle as the barcode truck. The arm grabs, lifts, and brings the mine up to the opening of the hold if the motor is turning forward. It then releases the mine into the hold and comes back down if the motor s turning direction is reversed. The easiest and most direct way to understand how this double action is achieved is to build the robot and observe it in action; see the photos in Figure 7-3.
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Figure 7-3. The Mine Sweeper s grabbing sequence (the frontal scanner is removed) Now, take a look at Figure 7-4. Here you can see the arm mechanism extracted from the robot context. At the base of the actions switching stands an opposing force. Here the force is gravity, while in the submarine, the force was produced by the compressed spring.
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Figure 7-4. The Mine Sweeper s grabber arm is extracted from the robot s context. The sequence of actions is determined by the force of gravity and by the limited run of the fingers. In Figure 7-4a, the arm is hanging vertically and the motor starts to move in the direction specified by the arrow; the light-colored parts are the ones that can move freely. The axle that transmits the driving torque is not integral with the 7-long white beams that form the arm frame; the axle rotates freely in the beam holes, and the geartrain brings its movement to the fingers. The arm is prevented from lifting by the force of gravity, which has no influence on the fingers movement. So, the driving torque flows towards the fingers, because they are completely free to move. In Figure 7-4b, the fingers are completely closed, and the driving torque is thus redirected to raise the arm. In Figure 7-4c, the axle has become integral with the arm frame, because the geartrain is blocked by the closed fingers. The axle can t help but lift the whole structure. This sequence a b c in Figure 7-4 is matched with the photos a b c of Figure 7-3. If the sequence ends here, the robot has collected an object: reversing the motor direction, the object will be lowered and released. To store the mines into the hold, the sequence must be completed, as shown in Figure 7-3, photos d, e, and f.
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The dark objects collected are stored into a space found in the depths of the robot. Considering a standard mine, one built with two 2 4 black bricks, the robot can collect more than ten of them. Not bad at all for our purposes!
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Now, you know all about how the robot collects and stores the objects. But, how does it find them The easiest way is to use a Light Sensor to detect dark objects on lighter ground by measuring the amount of light reflected by the objects. The Light Sensor is equipped with a red Light Emitting Diode (LED) that illuminates objects. The Light Sensor also has a detector (a phototransistor) that can measure the light reflected by the surface of the objects: the lighter the color of the object, the higher the reading returned by the Light Sensor, expressed in percent. Using a third-party color sensor, you can expand the robot s abilities. For example, the robot could pick up bricks of a certain color without storing them (the short sequence of Figure 7-4) and accumulate them in a pile, as a moving brick sorter. On the other hand, it could work on uneven colored ground, overcoming the actual dark-and-light recognition restriction. As anticipated at the beginning of this chapter, the frontal scanner includes two sensors: the Light Sensor, used to detect the mines, and the ultrasonic radar pointed downwards, to give the robot the ability to avoid the ravines. The robot interprets as a ravine an Ultrasonic Sensor reading of more than 35cm. It would not be a big deal if our expensive robot fell down from a table!
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