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CHAPTER 9 NEED INPUT! BUILDING A REMOTE CONTROL DEVICE
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// this function returns true if the // Bluetooth connection with the robot exists, // otherwise it displays some instructions // and returns false bool CheckBTConnection(int conn) { bool connection_exists; if (BluetoothStatus(conn)==NO_ERR) { connection_exists = true; } else { ClearScreen(); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE1,"You must connect"); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE2,"this NXT on"); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE3,"BT channel 1"); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE4,"using the menu"); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE5,"of the remote"); TextOut(0,LCD_LINE6,"control NXT."); Wait(4000); connection_exists = false; } return connection_exists; } // this function converts the received command // opcode into the corresponding motor speed short DecodeSpeed(short cmd) { short speed; if ( cmd == STOP ) speed = 0; if ( cmd == FWD1 ) speed = SPEED1; if ( cmd == FWD2 ) speed = SPEED2; if ( cmd == FWD3 ) speed = SPEED3; if ( cmd == FWD4 ) speed = SPEED4; if ( cmd == REV1 ) speed = -SPEED1; if ( cmd == REV2 ) speed = -SPEED2; if ( cmd == REV3 ) speed = -SPEED3; if ( cmd == REV4 ) speed = -SPEED4; return speed*sign(DIRECTION); } // // // // this subroutine actuates the command received: if continuous is true, the TOOL motor is run while the remote buttons are pressed, if continuous is false, the TOOL motor is run stepping
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// only if the function is different from the old one, // which holds the preceding value of the function sub Move(byte Lcmd, byte Rcmd, byte function, byte old, bool continuous) { // float wheels if both Xcmd are equal to STOP if (Rcmd == STOP) Float(R_WHEEL); if (Lcmd == STOP) Float(L_WHEEL); if (Rcmd == Lcmd) { // if the speed of the wheels is the same, // run motors in sync OnFwdSync(WHEELS,DecodeSpeed(Rcmd),0); } else { // else run motor at the speed // given by the DecodeSpeed function OnFwd(R_WHEEL,DecodeSpeed(Rcmd)); OnFwd(L_WHEEL,DecodeSpeed(Lcmd)); } // if the commands can be continuous if (continuous) { switch (function) { case 0: Off(TOOL); break; case 1: OnFwd(TOOL,50); break; case 2: OnFwd(TOOL,100); break; case 3: OnRev(TOOL,100); break; } } // if the commands are one-shot else if (function!=old) {
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switch (function) { case 1: PlayTone(1000,10); RotateMotorPID(TOOL,100,180,50,30,70); break; case 2: PlayTone(2000,10); RotateMotorPID(TOOL,100,45,50,30,70); break; case 3: PlayFile("! Attention.rso"); RotateMotorPID(TOOL,100,-360,50,30,70); break; } } } // this subroutine displays information // about the command received sub ShowCommands(byte Lc, byte Rc, byte trig, short command) { [...] } task main () { short command; byte Rcmd, Lcmd, function, oldfunction; if (!CheckBTConnection(0)) { // if Bluetooth connection with remote control // is not established, stop the whole program Stop(true); } // loop forever while(true) { // if mailbox 1 is not empty, process command if (ReceiveRemoteNumber(1,true,command) != STAT_MSG_EMPTY_MAILBOX) { // decode the left command (100s) Lcmd = (command/100); // decode the right command (10s) Rcmd = (command/10)%10;
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// decode the function (1s) function = (command%10); // show various information onscreen ShowCommands(Lcmd,Rcmd,function,command); // actuate command Move(Lcmd,Rcmd,function,oldfunction,false); oldfunction = function; } Wait(50); } } This program has only the main task running. At the beginning, it checks if the Bluetooth connection with the master exists (the connection numbered 0). The commands are received, decoded, and executed inside an infinite loop. If the condition if(ReceiveRemoteNumber(1,true,command) != STAT_MSG_EMPTY_MAILBOX) is true, that means that the mailbox contains something. If so, this something is put in the command variable. Unpacking the information from the received command is easy. It just takes a few lines of code, as follows: Rcmd = (command/10)%10; Lcmd = (command/100); function = (command%10); The Rcmd (the speed level for the right wheel) is extracted by dividing the command by 10, and using the modulo operator (%) to take the remainder from the integer division of the number by 10. For example, consider the command 523: Divide it by 10, and it yields 52, and the modulo operation result is 2 exactly what you wanted. The speed level for the left wheel (Lcmd) is simply obtained by dividing the command by 100 into 523, and you get 5. The function variable receives the code produced by the Touch Sensors pressed in the remote. The number is obtained by using the modulo operator (%) to get the remainder from the integer division by 10. For example, from 523 you get 3, because 10 is contained 52 times in 523, and 3 is the remainder. Once main has decoded these three variables, the functions ShowCommands() and Move() are invoked. The Move function works straightforwardly. It uses the decoded variables to drive the motors in the following way: if both Rcmd and Lcmd are equal to STOP, the wheels are stopped. If these variables have the same value (different from STOP), the wheels are started with OnFwdSync by using 0 as a turning percentage, so the robot can proceed straight ahead. For any other value of these variables, the wheels are driven with the speed level returned by the DecodeSpeed function, which accepts the command code (a number from 0 to 8) as an argument, and returns one of the four speed levels defined at the top of the program. You can set the DIRECTION constant to 1 or -1, to get the robot going forward when receiving the command to go forward. This might seem obvious, but doesn t come free: the robot structure could vary from one robot to another, and the motors of the wheels could be placed so that the robot goes in reverse if they are running forward. So, you can change the DIRECTION constant to compensate for that inversion. Finally, the program accomplishes the action corresponding to one of the three allowed values of the function variable by calling the Move subroutine. If the parameter continuous is true, the triggers can control the third motor in a continuous way: the motor runs until one of
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