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CHAPTER 9 THE MOBILE 3D GRAPHICS API
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// give information about what region of 3-space is // visible to the camera: camera.setPerspective(60.0f, (float)getWidth() / (float)getHeight(), 1.0f, 1000.0f); Here, I m just rendering my pyramid object directly in what is called immediate mode (more on rendering mode in a moment). In immediate mode rendering, the Background and the Camera are set directly for the Graphics3D object after binding to the target Graphics object. At this point, I would normally add some lights to the Graphics3D object as well, but unlike the Camera and Background lights are not technically necessary if no special lighting effects are desired. So in this example I ll simply paint the pyramid white against a black background and not bother with lights. The last thing to take care of before rendering is to define where all of the various items should be placed with respect to one another. By default, the origin of the coordinates in the VertexBuffer to be rendered is the same as the default location for the Camera and the Lights. So we apply a Transform for each object to move it to its proper location and point it in the right direction and rotate it. Fortunately, the Transform object has plenty of convenient methods to translate, scale, and rotate an individual object s coordinates with respect to their original location and orientation. The Camera is oriented to look down at the negative Z-axis as explained in the Position Coordinates section earlier. So we need to translate the camera by moving it up along the Z-axis in order to see the pyramid. Once we ve done all that, we re ready to render. The VertexBuffer and IndexBuffer defining the polygon are passed as arguments to the Graphics3D s render() method along with the appearance and transform information: // Now set where we're viewing the scene from: Transform cameraTransform = new Transform(); // We set the camera's X position and Y position to 0 // so that we're looking straight down at the origin // of the x-y plane. The Z coordinate tells how far // away the camera is -- increasing this value takes // you farther from the polygon, making it appear // smaller. Try changing these values to view the // polygon from different places: cameraTransform.postTranslate(0.0f, 0.0f, 100.0f); g3d.setCamera(camera, cameraTransform); // Now set the location of the object. // If this were an animation we would probably // translate or rotate it here: Transform objectTransform = new Transform(); objectTransform.setIdentity(); // Now render: Project from a 3D object to a 2D screen g3d.render(vb, tsa, new Appearance(), objectTransform);
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CHAPTER 9 THE MOBILE 3D GRAPHICS API
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Once the object is rendered, the only thing left to do is release the target, as shown in the following snippet. This is a necessary step that must be performed for the rendered image to be made visible, so it should appear in the finally clause of the try block where the target is bound: // Done, the canvas graphics can be freed now: g3d.releaseTarget(); All of our code can be placed in the paint method of a Canvas. Figure 9-4 shows what the result looks like in the WTK.
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Figure 9-4. A simple incomplete pyramid viewed from above The first thing you should notice is that even though the square base is part of the polygon, it turned out black on the screen. That s because by default the inside faces are invisible not rendered. In M3G terms, they ve been removed, or culled. If you d like the inside faces to be visible, then create a PolygonMode object for your polygon s appearance, and set the PolygonMode s culling to CULL_NONE. The computer determines which side is inside and which side is outside by determining whether the vertices of the triangle are defined in clockwise or counterclockwise order. If going from the first, to the second, to the third vertex of the triangle means going around the triangle counterclockwise, then you re looking at the outside. (If you don t want the outside to be the counterclockwise side, there s a method to invert the inside and the outside.) Unfortunately since each triangle in the triangle strip shares two vertices (in order) with the next triangle it turns out that if one triangle is given counterclockwise, the next one will be clockwise. So your triangle strip logically would alternate between showing you the inside face of the triangle and the outside face of the next triangle, which isn t what you want in a reasonable surface. Thus, the inside and outside of the entire triangle strip is determined by the inside and outside of the first triangle.
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