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Modifying Image Colors and Transparency
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Another trick to save space in the JAR file is to modify the color of an image if the same image is used with more than one coloration. In the Dungeon example, all of the menu items are written in black. However, as the user moves up and down the menu to select a choice, there has to be some way to indicate which item is currently highlighted. One way to do this is to change the color of the focused item in the Dungeon example it will be bright blue. It wouldn t be terribly efficient to store black versions of all of the labels in the JAR and also blue versions of the exact same images. So in the Dungeon example, for each label image, you create a second image, swapping out the black color and exchanging it with blue. In the code for the menu, you ll see that it s convenient to have each menu item be a Sprite so that in a single method call (setCell()) you can switch from the unfocused (black) image to the focused (blue) image. And since a Sprite requires all of its cells to be read from a single image object, it s necessary to create a new image object that has both colored versions together, as seen in Listing 10-4. Listing 10-4. ColorChanger.java package net.frog_parrot.util; import javax.microedition.lcdui.*;
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/** * This class modifies the colors and transparency * of an image. * * @author Carol Hamer */ public class ColorChanger { //--------------------------------------------------------// Constants /** * A color constant. */ public static int TRANSPARENT_WHITE = 0x00ffffff; /** * A color constant. */ public static int OPAQUE = 0xff000000; //--------------------------------------------------------// utilities /** * This method changes the transparency of the Image. * * @param image the source Image to modify * @param color the color value that the new transparency * is read from in ARGB. The RGB part is ignored. */ public static Image modifyTransparency(Image image, int color) { int transparency = color & OPAQUE; int width = image.getWidth(); int height = image.getHeight(); int[] imageData = new int[width * height]; image.getRGB(imageData, 0, width, 0, 0, width, height); for(int i = 0; i < imageData.length; i++) { // only modify pixels that aren't already // fully transparent: if((imageData[i] & OPAQUE) != 0) { imageData[i] = transparency + (imageData[i] & TRANSPARENT_WHITE); } } return(Image.createRGBImage(imageData, width, height, true)); }
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/** * This method doubles the size of the image by * adding a second copy of the image to the image file * with a new color. This is used to create Sprites * with a "focused" and "unfocused" version of * the same image. * * @param image the source Image to modify * @param oldColor the color to replace. * @param newColor the color to replace it with. */ public static Image createFocused(Image image, int oldColor, int newColor) { int width = image.getWidth(); int height = image.getHeight(); int simpleSize = width * height; int[] imageData = new int[simpleSize * 2]; // make two copies of the image data one // after the other in the byte array: image.getRGB(imageData, 0, width, 0, 0, width, height); image.getRGB(imageData, simpleSize, width, 0, 0, width, height); for(int i = 0; i < simpleSize; i++) { // change the color in the first of the two copies: if(imageData[i] == oldColor) { imageData[i] = newColor; } } return(Image.createRGBImage(imageData, width, height * 2, true)); } } The part of this class that requires some further explanation is the part that modifies the transparency. Each pixel of an image has a color value given in ARGB format. ARGB stands for alpha, red, green, blue. So when you write the color value as a hexadecimal integer, you think of it as 0xaarrggbb. For example, if the color value is 0x33451027, then the color has 0 27 units of blue, 0 10 units of green, 0 45 units of red, and 0 33 units of alpha. I assume you re familiar with red, green, and blue, but you might not know what alpha means in this context. Alpha refers to how transparent the pixel is. As you might guess from the constants in Listing 10-4, 0xff000000 gives a fully opaque pixel and 0x00000000 gives a fully transparent pixel, and the intermediate values give semitransparent pixels. A transparent pixel is completely invisible when painted over an opaque pixel. Fully opaque and fully transparent are the only two possibilities that a MIDP device is required to support; however, if some blending is supported, then two semitransparent pixels will have their colors blended (according to their relative opacity) when painted on top of one another. If the platform doesn t support any alpha blending, then semitransparent pixels will be treated as fully transparent.
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