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Definitions from the Literature
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Before I get to the issue of confusion over the difference between model and implementation, I must admit that the concepts do seem to be a little difficult to pin down precisely. I ve already given my own preferred definitions, of course. Here by contrast are some definitions from the literature ... First of all, here s what UML has to say (these definitions are taken from The Unified Modeling Language User Guide, by Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson, Addison-Wesley, 1999): Model: A simplification of reality, created in order to better understand the system being created; a semantically closed abstraction of a system. Implementation: A concrete realization of the contract declared by an interface; a definition of how something is constructed or computed. I m not sure whether I concur with these definitions or not! They don t seem as crisp as mine, but you might disagree. I note too that the term architecture is sometimes used to mean something like what I mean by model. As Fred Brooks says in The Mythical Man-Month, 20th anniversary edition, Addison-Wesley, 1995: [The] architecture of a system [is] the complete and detailed specification of the user interface. Or maybe not ... Here s the UML definition: Architecture: The set of significant decisions about the organization of a software system, the selection of the structural elements and their interfaces by which the system is composed, together with their behavior as specified in the collaborations among those elements, the composition of these structural and behavioral elements into progressively large subsystems, and the architectural style that guides this organization these elements and their interfaces, their collaborations, and their composition. Software architecture is not only concerned with structure and behavior, but also with usage, functionality, performance, resilience, reuse, comprehensibility, economic and technology constraints and trade-offs, and aesthetic concerns. What do you think
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CHAPTER 5 ON THE LOGICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MODEL AND IMPLEMENTATION
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Next, I took a look at some of the standard database textbooks. The first thing I discovered was that as in the case of data independence previously noted most of them didn t even seem to have either model or data model in the index! And I couldn t find an explicit discussion of the logical difference between model and implementation in any of them. Here s what I did find (boldface and italics as in the originals): Raghu Ramakrishnan and Johannes Gehrke, Database Management Systems, 3rd edition (McGraw-Hill, 2003): A data model is a collection of high-level data description constructs that hide many low-level storage details. Patrick O Neil, Database Principles, Programming, and Performance, 2nd edition (Morgan Kaufmann, 2000): A database model, or data model, is a set of definitions describing how real-world data is conceptually represented as computerized information. Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd edition (Benjamin Cummings, 2000): A data model [is] a collection of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of a database ... By structure of a database we mean the data types, relationships, and constraints that should hold on the data. Note the focus in these definitions on the structural aspects of data specifically (though Elmasri and Navathe do add that Most [sic!] data models also include a set of basic operations for specifying retrievals and updates on the data ). I conclude from all of the foregoing that an article like this one is definitely needed.
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Examples of Confusion: Performance Issues
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In this section and the next three, I ll give examples of confusion over the model vs. implementation distinction, with commentary. The first point that seems to need stressing is this: Since model is a logical concept and implementation is a physical one, everything to do with performance is purely a matter of implementation and has nothing to do with the model. This point is surely obvious, and yet many people do seem to be confused about it. Here are some typical quotes: A mid 1990s advertisement for the object database product GemStone: Maybe you ve ... hit the relational performance barrier because you re doing too many JOINs [uppercase in the original]. Doug Barry, When to Use Object DBMSs, Computerworld, October 26th, 1992: The relational joins ... now either go away because of the object data model or are replaced with data references. And traversing a data reference is considerably faster than a join. Won Kim: On Marrying Relations and Objects: Relation-Centric and Object-Centric Perspectives, Data Base Newsletter 22, No. 6 (November/December 1994) and elsewhere: [A deficiency of the relational model is the] join-based retrieval of a collection of related data (even when the need to retrieve the collection of data is known at the time of database design).
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