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Set your domain to YourCompany with the domainname command. Verify that this has taken effect by typing the command again without any options. YourCompany should be returned. $ domainname YourCompany $ domainname YourCompany NIS will be able to understand a large number of maps by default. I won t explain the specific maps and will use only a few as an example. The maps you ll be concerned with are passwd.byname, passwd.byuid, services, mail.aliases, and ypservers. These maps also have nicknames that will make administration easier. Mail.aliases has the nickname of aliases, and passwd.byname has the nickname of passwd. When viewing maps with the ypcat command, you can use these nicknames. For example, ypcat passwd is really the same as ypcat passwd.byname. Upon the initial configuration, you re ready to set up your basic maps. You do this with the ypinit command. $ cd /var/yp $ ./ypinit -m We now need to construct a list of hosts that run NIS servers. Enter the names or addresses of these hosts one at a time, Excluding this host, then simply hit <Enter> to end the list. Name (<Enter> to exit): NISslave Name (<Enter> to exit): Parsing configuration files into databases. The -m flag specified on the command line denotes that this will be the master server. After initializing your base set of information, you should be able to start your master server. The default startup scripts in your rc.d directory start up NIS services upon basic system startup. Or you can do this manually with the following command: $ /usr/libexec/rpc.passwd /etc/passwd.nis -m passwd You ll want to make sure your NIS services are running and communicating with the appropriate host. Since the master also functions as a client to itself, you can run the ypwhich command locally and make sure that the appropriate host is returned. $ ypwhich NISmaster Once you ve set up a basic NIS master server, you ll want to have NIS slaves communicating with it to obtain their information. On the NIS slaves, use the ypset command to point them to the appropriate NIS master. NISslave$ ypset NISmaster NISslave$ ypwhich NISmaster The ypinit command with the -s flag will initialize hosts as NIS slaves.
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$ cd /var/yp $ ./ypinit -s NISmaster Transferring map passwd.byname from server NISmaster Transferring map mail.aliases from server NISmaster Transferring map group.byname from server NISmaster ...
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Performing Synchronization with LDAP
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The overall goal of setting up NIS services is to be able to obtain certain types of information from remote hosts instead of just local files. In the beginning, your hosts would read data from /etc/passwd, /etc/hosts, and other local sources. These files had no mechanism in place to keep them in sync. A user existing on HOST1 wouldn t necessarily have an account on HOST2 unless the system administrator manually provisioned it. With NIS, you have the capability of having the same account on both hosts. Unfortunately, one drawback of NIS is that NIS uses only the maps. If other types of applications within your environment require the user of passwd and hosts files that only exist in NIS, they d either have to use NIS to query the information or rely on something outside of NIS to generate them. This is where LDAP comes in. The first method that was used to integrate LDAP and NIS was based on a synchronization model (see Figure 7-1).
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Figure 7-1. Synchronization model
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NIS clients still use the same sets of protocols to read information from the same sets of maps. These maps contain the same information. The difference, in a synchronization model, is that the maps are generated based on queries from an LDAP system. The queries are performed, and the same maps are generated as before. Nothing changes on the NIS side of the equation except the methods used to generate data. The authoritative source now becomes LDAP, but the information is still retrieved in the same legacy methods. Some initial implementations of the NIS/LDAP synchronization model relied on specific daemons to generate the particular maps. Tools are provided for converting the existing data into tables that would be stored in LDAP Netscape and Sun Microsystems came up with a basic synchronization . model against the Netscape Directory Server and the Solaris operating environment that expanded this basic model and replaced the NIS services with actual daemons that functioned like NIS clients and servers but retrieved information directly from LDAP . Taking the example of the aliases file (the mail.aliases map), you can see the progression. In the beginning, the aliases file may look like this: mailer-daemon: postmaster postmaster: root testuser: tom@sun4c.net
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