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CHAPTER 11 PARAMETERIZED FUNCTIONS AND TYPES
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Listing 11-32. Using a Constraint to Guarantee the Existence of an Operator interface class IAddition { static IAddition^ operator+(IAddition^, IAddition^); }; generic <typename T> where T : IAddition ref class G { T add(T t1, T t2) { return t1 + t2; } }; The problems arise when you try to use the primitive types, since, although they might have a + operator, they don t implement IAddition. Using templates, you can just use the + operator without the constraint, and if someone tries to instantiate the template with a type that is incompatible, it simply won t compile, but the template would work with int as well as with your types that define the + operator. There are certainly other examples of when you would want to use templates instead of generics. It is a trade-off, since the additional expressive power of templates does come at the cost of only having access to the templates with a single assembly, apart from generic interfaces you might set up for interassembly communication. On the other hand, generics have many advantages when programming in the CLI environment. Advantages of generics are significantly greater runtime flexibility, since you can use types not envisioned at compile time; the ability to use generics across assembly boundaries; and the ability to interoperate with other CLI languages.
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Summary
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In this chapter, you looked at the two major language features supporting parameterized types: generics and templates. You saw how to declare, define, and use generic functions and types, and how to use constraints to allow generic code to use specific features of a specified subset of types. You also looked at a variety of .NET Framework collection classes, including ArrayList and Dictionary, and their associated helper classes. You learned the differences between the generic and nongeneric collection classes and when to use them, and you also learned another way to enumerate over collections using enumerators and the for each statement. Finally, you looked at managed templates and the differences between them and generics and you saw when to use one or the other. In the next and final chapter, I ll cover how to use C++/CLI to interoperate with other technologies, including other .NET languages and native C++ code.
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Interoperability
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nteroperability, or interop as it is usually called, refers to using or invoking program code from some other programming environment or language, for example, calling COM or native C++ code in a managed language. Interop is a complex but beautiful and extremely necessary thing. Many people think that the C++/CLI language for the .NET platform would be used primarily to extend existing code bases written in native C++. While there is no reason why you could not use C++/CLI as your .NET language of choice, the support that C++/CLI provides for native code interop on the .NET platform is indeed impressive. In many cases, you simply turn on the /clr compiler option and recompile your native code, producing managed code (or at least mixed code that s mostly MSIL but with a few native x86 or x64 instructions mixed in). This feature was called IJW or it just works when it was originally released along with Managed Extensions for C++. And for the most part, it was true. It s now called mixed mode. A huge amount of work went into making that type of interop possible. Also, even if you re writing an entirely new application that uses a native API, such as Win32, interop support in C++ makes it easier and much faster to call these APIs in C++ than it is in C#.
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The Many Faces of Interop
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There are several kinds of interop that you should be aware of. Cross-language interop is the one you ll see first, and that refers to the ability of C++/CLI to work closely with C# and Visual Basic, and other languages that target the CLR. Because of the common platform, common IL, and assembly and metadata formats, you can use a C# or Visual Basic assembly pretty much as you would another C++/CLI assembly. You can reference it with #using, you can create instances of the types declared in those assemblies, call methods, and so on. You can also go a step further and create inheritance hierarchies that cross language boundaries, such as a C# class that implements a C++/CLI interface, or a C++/CLI class that inherits from a class written in Visual Basic. Once these types are compiled to MSIL, there is little that indicates the original language in which they were authored. In addition to cross-language interop, you may also need to interoperate with native C++ code. The way you choose to interoperate depends on whether you have source code available or only have a binary, whether the native API is exposed as a function or a class, whether the API is exposed via COM, and whether you can recompile the code. Let s first consider the case where you don t have source access, and you simply have a library function in a native DLL that you d like to call from a managed environment. The CLR provides a mechanism for doing this; it s usually referred to as Platform Invoke, or P/Invoke,
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