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Drawing PDF-417 2d barcode in Visual C#.NET FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS

CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS
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Listing 5-34. Using an ArrayList // arraylist.cpp using namespace System; using namespace System::Collections; int main() { ArrayList^ array_list = gcnew ArrayList(); array_list->Add("apple"); array_list->Add("banana"); // Iterate using the for each operator. for each (String^ s in array_list) { Console::WriteLine( s ); } // Iterate using indexing. for (int i = 0; i < array_list->Count; i++) { Console::WriteLine("{0} {1}", i, array_list[i]); } } The output of Listing 5-34 is as follows: apple banana 0 apple 1 banana The problem with the ArrayList class is that it represents an untyped collection. Unlike an array, which forces its elements to be of the specified type, the ArrayList used in the previous example has no such enforcement. Fortunately, there is a solution in the form of the generic ArrayList class. As you saw briefly in 2, it is possible in C++/CLI to use a generic class that contains an unknown type parameter. In the .NET Framework generic List class, in the namespace System::Collections::Generic, the element type is the generic type parameter. Using this generic List class, you can have a strongly typed version of the ArrayList (see Listing 5-35). For more information on generics, see 11.
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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS
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Listing 5-35. Using a Generic List // list_generic.cpp using namespace System; using namespace System::Collections::Generic; int main() { List<String^>^ list = gcnew List<String^>(); list->Add("apple"); list->Add("banana"); // Iterate using the for each operator. for each (String^ s in list) { Console::WriteLine( s ); } // Iterate using indexing. for (int i = 0; i < list->Count; i++) { Console::WriteLine("{0} {1}", i, list[i]); } } The output of Listing 5-35 is also apple banana 0 apple 1 banana The preceding sections reviewed the classic C++ array and compared that construct to the new C++/CLI array construct. You saw the syntax for creating and initializing arrays, and learned about copying arrays, using arrays as parameters and return values, and the usefulness of some of the functionality that C++/CLI arrays inherit from System::Array, including sorting and searching. Next, you ll get a look at another fundamental .NET type used in C++/CLI the Enum type (represented by System::Enum).
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Enumerated Types
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C++/CLI supports an enumerated type. Of course, classic C++ also supports enumerated types. There are some interesting differences between the managed enum class type and C++ enums.
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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS
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In classic C++, an enum is an integer type. In C++/CLI, the enum class is also treated as an integral type but, rather like int can be boxed into an object type, and array types inherit implicitly System::Array, enum objects inherit implicitly from System::Enum, and methods available on System::Enum may be called. This inheritance relationship doesn t preclude them from being treated as integers for efficiency, however, since, like any other value type, they are only boxed into the relevant object type when needed, for example, to call a method.
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The Enum Class
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Enumerated types are supported in C++/CLI using the enum class (or enum structure). Enum classes have a series of static named fields that have a fixed integral value. There is no operative difference between an enum structure and class. You saw in 2 that the enum class is used to define an enumerated type. Enumerated types are value types. The enum variable may be a handle, in which case it s a boxed value type, or it may be created on the stack. It could also be a member of a class and be part of the layout of the enclosing class. The example in Listing 5-36 shows the basic syntax for declaring and using an enum class. Listing 5-36. Using an Enum // enum.cpp enum class Flavor { Vanilla, Chocolate, Strawberry }; int main() { // The enum variable may be a handle // or a stack variable. If used as a handle, // it's a boxed value type. // The enum value, Vanilla, is // scoped by the enum class name. Flavor^ flavor_handle = Flavor::Vanilla; Flavor flavor_stack = Flavor::Vanilla; } Note the differences between the usage of enum class values and classic C++ enum values. Enum class values are scoped with the name of the enum class; classic C++ enum values are not scoped with the name of the enum.
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