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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS
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Enumerated Types and Conversions
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Another difference between C++/CLI enum class types and classic C++ enums is in how they are handled in conversions. The classic C++ enum is readily converted to an int. In fact, it is an int in disguise. This can be very useful, and many programming idioms use this conversion liberally. The C++/CLI enum is also an integral type in disguise, but by contrast, enum class objects must be converted to integer types explicitly. // Try to convert an enum class value to int. int i = Flavor::Vanilla; // Error! The conversion must be made explicit with a cast, like so: int i = (int) Flavor::Vanilla; Stylistically, a safe_cast is preferred: int i = safe_cast<int>(Flavor::Vanilla);
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The Underlying Type of an Enum
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The enum class has an underlying integral type. C++/CLI provides a way to specify this underlying type. The syntax is rather like the syntax for inheritance, in that the underlying type is used after a colon, rather like specifying a base type (see Listing 5-37). Listing 5-37. Specifying the Underlying Type of an Enum // enum_type_specified.cpp using namespace System; enum class Ordinal : char { zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty }; int main() { char c1 = 13; char c2 = 156; Ordinal ord1 = safe_cast<Ordinal>(c1); Console::WriteLine(ord1.ToString()); } Here is the output of Listing 5-37:
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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS
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The Flags Attribute
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A typical use of enums is to define a set of independent binary values, known as flags, that can be combined by using the bitwise OR operator (|). The Flags attribute is intended to be used on enum classes that can be treated as a series of flags, as in Listing 5-38. Listing 5-38. Using the Flags Attribute // enum_flags.cpp using namespace System; [ Flags ] enum class FontFormat { None = 0, // No flags set. BOLD = 1, // The values are set to powers of 2 ITALIC = 2, // so that in binary, each represents one bit position. UNDERLINE = 4, STRIKETHROUGH = 8, RED = 16, FLASHING = 32, BOLD_ITALIC = BOLD | ITALIC // combination of two values }; ref class Font { public: property String^ Name; Font(String^ s) { Name = s; } }; ref class Display { public: static void SetFont(Font^ font, FontFormat format) { // Testing the bits of a Flags enum using the bitwise and operator (&) // requires a cast to int. if (safe_cast<int>(format) & safe_cast<int>(FontFormat::BOLD)) { // Use a bold font. }
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CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTAL TYPES: STRINGS, ARRAYS, AND ENUMS
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if (safe_cast<int>(format) & safe_cast<int>(FontFormat::ITALIC)) { // Use italics. } // etc. }; }; int main() { // The bitwise or operator (|) combines the flag values. Display::SetFont(gcnew Font("Times New Roman"), FontFormat::BOLD | FontFormat::RED ); Display::SetFont(gcnew Font("Helvetica"), FontFormat::ITALIC | FontFormat::FLASHING ); }
Enum Values As Strings
The enumeration value can be obtained easily as a string. An enumeration value may be passed to any of the string formatting functions, such as the Format method in the String class, or a Write or WriteLine method. The format character used after the colon determines whether it is displayed as a name, decimal number, or hex number. Possible format characters include D or d, G or g, F or f, X or x. The G or g format indicates general, and causes the formatting to resolve to the name of the enumeration value. If the FlagsAttribute is used on the enumeration, the formatted value is a delimiter-separated list of flag names. The F or f format is similar except that the enumeration is interpreted as a flag regardless of whether the FlagsAttribute was used on the enum declaration. The other formatting characters specify numeric output in decimal (D or d) or hexadecimal (X or x). For all these formats, the case of the formatting character is ignored. You can also use the ToString method on the enumeration object. The ToString method takes the same formatting string as a parameter. Listing 5-39 provides some examples. Listing 5-39. Formatting Enum Values // enum_format.cpp using namespace System; enum class Color { Red = 1, Blue = 2, Green = 3 };
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