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slower than something that has been written with only one specific task in mind. Newer versions have improved this situation by delaying the load phase of many components until they re needed. If you need to know some information on only one or two images, loading Image::Magick just for this might be too expensive.6 If you plan to procure information on many images, the cost of loading is negligible. 2.2.3
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If you need something fast and lightweight that will work almost everywhere, especially when you know that you will only have to deal with one file format, writing your own subroutines can be the best option. As an illustration, we will do this for PNG and for XCF, the native format for the Gimp. The subroutines will return the same values as the imgsize() subroutine from Image::Size.
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The PNG format[14] specifies a fixed header of 8 bytes, followed by a chunk of type IHDR. This chunk first contains a 4-byte integer, then a 4-byte identifier, and two 4-byte integers for the width and height. In PNG, all integers are stored in network byte order. If we translate this knowledge into Perl code, we get something like the following:
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sub png_size { my $file = shift or return; my $buf; local(*IMG); open(IMG, $file) or return; binmode(IMG); read(IMG, $buf, 24); Read the first 8 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 bytes my ($hdr, $l, $ihdr, $w, $h) = unpack("a8 N a4 N N", $buf); return unless $hdr eq "\x89PNG\x0d\x0a\x1a\x0a" && $ihdr eq 'IHDR'; return ($w, $h, 'PNG');
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You will notice the local(*IMG) and the absence of an explicit close(IMG). By localizing the file handle, we first make certain that we don t trample on any file handles in the rest of the program, and we assure that the file gets closed on exiting the block, i.e., when the subroutine returns. In more modern versions of Perl (post 5.6.0) you can also use a lexically scoped variable as a file handle, which has the same effect. In this subroutine, unpack() is used to split up the binary information in the 24 header bytes into the parts in which we are interested. The translation of the unpack
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Generally, the newer your version of Image::Magick, the less this is a problem. For example, version 5.4.4 is about 20 percent faster than the previous version.
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template can almost literally be found in the paragraph preceding the code. The second return value of the unpack() operation, which is the total length of the IHDR chunk, is captured, but not used, because it is not important to us. Next $hdr and $ihdr are checked to see if they are what they should be, and if they are not, a false value is returned. To round things off, the width, height and image type are returned.
The Gimp s XCF format
The documentation on XCF, the native format for the Gimp, is distributed with its source code, and is, in fact, the source code. So, to learn how to read this format, we have to get our hands on a source distribution of the GIMP.7 In the file apps/xcf.c we find that there are currently (as of version 1.1.10) two versions of the file format, in comments called versions 0 and 1. The only difference for our purposes is the version number in the header of the file. The first thing to be noted about the XCF format is that, like in the PNG format, integers are stored in network byte order. We read from the source code that the first 9 bytes contain a fixed header, and that the version number can be found, as a null terminated string, in the next 5 bytes. The width and height of the image are the next two 4-byte integers:
sub xcf_size { my $file = shift or return; my $buf; local(*IMG); open(IMG, $file) or return; binmode(IMG); Read the first 9 + 5 + 4 + 4 bytes read(IMG, $buf, 22); my ($hdr, $v, $w, $h) = unpack("a9 Z5 N N", $buf); return unless ($hdr eq "gimp xcf "); SWITCH: { $v eq 'file' and $v = 'XCF0', last SWITCH; $v eq 'v001' and $v = 'XCF1', last SWITCH; # Unknown version. $w and $h may be unreliable return; } return ($w, $h, $v);
This code is very similar to png_size(), except that the type of the image is determined from the version number found in the file. The XCF version 0 format formerly had the first 13 bytes set to gimp xcf file, while the version 1 header contains gimp xcf v001. We capture the version as the last 4 bytes of this string, and rewrite it into something slightly more meaningful.
Full sources for the GIMP are available from http://www.gimp.org/.
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