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CHA PTE R 5
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argument is a reference to an array that contains the values at which a contour should be drawn, and the seventh argument is the number of elements in that array that you want to use. By default, pgcont() will draw contour levels with a positive value as solid lines, and those with negative values with dashed lines. You can override this behavior, and make pgcont() use the current line style, by specifying this seventh argument as a negative number. The last argument is a reference to the transformation array, @tr. We d like to have each contour labelled with the value it represents:
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pgslw(2); foreach my $level (@level) { my $label = sprintf "%.2f", $level; pgconl(\@f, 40, 40, 1, 40, 1, 40, $level, \@tr, $label, 30, 20); }
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The pgconl() function places labels on a single contour. The first six arguments to this function are the same as the arguments to the pgcont() function. The seventh argument is the level of the contour that you want to label (this should be one of the values that you passed to pgcont() in the @level array). The eighth argument is the transformation array and the ninth argument is the label you want to put on the contour. The last two arguments control the spacing of the contours (see the user s manual for more information). To label each of the contours drawn in the previous step, we call pgconl() in a loop for each element of @level, setting the label to a rounded value of the current contour level. All that is left to do is to close the output device and define a few subroutines that we used earlier in the program:
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pgclos; sub min { return $_[0] unless defined $_[1]; $_[0] < $_[1] $_[0] : $_[1]; } sub max { return $_[0] unless defined $_[1]; $_[0] > $_[1] $_[0] : $_[1]; }
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Example: Plotting a galaxy
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It is also possible to display bitmaps with PGPLOT and accentuate certain features in them, a facility often used by astronomers to display parts of the night sky for publication.
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Figure 5.9 A PGPLOT graph, using a bitmap as background and data for a contour plot and a wedge to show the magnitude of the grayscale values. The data represents the M51 system, and was obtained by Dr. Patrick Seitner from the University of Michigan.
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The program that produced figure 5.9 is short, so I ll present it as a whole:
use PGPLOT; my $img; open(IMG,"test.img") || die "Data file test.img not found"; read(IMG, $img, 128*128*2); Read the image file close(IMG); my @image = unpack("n*", $img);
$ENV{PGPLOT_PS_WIDTH} = 4000; $ENV{PGPLOT_PS_HEIGHT} = 3000; pgopen('pgplot2.eps/VPS') or die "Couldn't open plot"; my @tr=(12000, 8, 0, 12000, 0, 8); pgwnad(12000, 13024, 13024, 12000);
Set up a coordinate transformation
pgslw(2); pggray(\@image, 128, 128, 1, 128, 1, 128, 10000, 0, \@tr); pglabel('\ga', '\gd', ''); pgtbox('ZYHBCNST', 0, 0, 'ZYDBCNST', 0, 0); pgwedg('R', 2, 5, 10000, 0, 'Counts');
Display the image data
e Create a scaling wedge
my @levels = (1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 7500); pgcons(\@image, 128, 128, 1, 128, 1, 128, \@levels, 5, \@tr); pgclos;
The data for the image is located in a file with the name test.img, and is stored as a simple series of 128 rows of 128 2-byte network order integers. We read all those bytes into memory, and use the unpack() built in to transform them into an array of Perl numbers. This is followed by the customary setting up and opening of an output device.
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Next, a coordinate transformation matrix is created, as discussed on page 82, and a window is set up in which to plot the image. The pggray() function is used to display the image data from the array @image in this window. The second and third arguments to pggray() specify the number of rows and columns in the data set, and the fourth to seventh arguments specify which subset of those rows and columns to use. In this particular case, the image is 128 pixels wide and 128 high, and all pixels (1 to 128 inclusive) in both directions are used. If we wanted just part of the image, we could have specified something like:
# The left half pggray(\@image, 128, 128, 1, 64, 1, 128, 10000, 0, \@tr); # The top left quarter pggray(\@image, 128, 128, 1, 64, 1, 64, 10000, 0, \@tr); # The bottom half pggray(\@image, 128, 128, 1, 128, 65, 128, 10000, 0, \@tr);
The eighth and ninth arguments to pggray() express how the values in the input array are to be translated to grayscale in the image. The eighth argument expresses the white point of the image, i.e., every pixel in the array with a value of 10000 and above will be displayed as white. The ninth argument expresses the black point, and every pixel in the array equal to or lower than this value will be displayed as black. All other pixels will receive a grayscale value between 0 and 1. Thus, these numbers express the maximum and minimum values anyone is interested in distinguishing. The axes are labelled with the Greek letters and to indicate the inclination and declination of the pixels, and the box format is set up with pgtbox() (refer to the manual of PGPLOT for a full description), so that the coordinates are expressed in angular notation.
Lastly, a wedge is created next to the window that shows a brightness scale for the image. To complete the picture, some contours are drawn on the picture with pgcons(), outlining areas of similar value on the image.
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