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There are some classes of indexed access paths where the calculations change dramatically as you upgrade to 10.1.0.4. If you have multicolumn B-tree indexes, and the leading edge of the index is used for a range scan, and you have user_indexes.num_rows < user_tables.num_rows, then it looks as if the optimizer loses the cost of visiting the index leaf blocks in its calculations. You only need one row in the table where every column in the index has a null value for this change to occur, with a consequential change in access path or join order.
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The memory allocation for various large-scale memory operations is now driven by the parameter pga_aggregate_target if you set workarea_size_policy to auto. The work area for a single operation (such as a sort, or hash) can be as large as 5% of the target (or 30% when summed across all the slaves in a parallel operation). The optimizer calculates the cost of an operation based on that 5% (or 30%). If you have set the parameter to a value that is too large to be realistic, then it is possible that the 5% will never be available at run time. This means the optimizer could end up giving hash joins and sort/ merge joins a cost that is too low when compared to the actual resource consumption that has to take place when the query runs. In 9i, the pga_aggregate_target does not apply to sessions connected through Shared Servers (formerly MTS), so the sort_area_size and hash_area_size are still relevant. However, the optimizer will use the figures relevant to a dedicated server connection in its calculations even when connected through a Shared Server, so you could find sessions connected through Shared Servers producing unsuitable execution plans. In 10g, this has changed, and the PGA takes on the large memory allocations even for Shared Servers. There are a couple of hidden parameters (_smm_max_size and _pga_max_size) that affect the maximum size of a single operation the 5% limit mentioned previously is further limited to _pga_max_size / 2.This can have severely limiting effects on a system that does large sort or hash operations, so you may need to switch some sessions temporarily back to using manual workarea size policy, and setting explicit value for the sort_area_size and hash_area_size.
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The algorithms that calculate the cost of a sort have been modified in 9i when you have system statistics (CPU costing) enabled and CPU costing is the default for 10g. Most significantly, the cost of an in-memory sort no longer includes a spurious component for dumping the sorted data to disk. This means that there may be cases where the cost of a sort is suddenly very much cheaper than it used to be in earlier versions of Oracle, and this could lead to a dramatic change in execution plan. However, if you have also enabled the automatic workarea size policy feature, then the arithmetic changes again, and this problem may not appear.
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From 9i onwards, the cost of sorting for group by or distinct clauses has been changed to cater to the fact that the size of the result set could be smaller than the size of the input set. If you have complex queries that include aggregate subqueries that crunch a large number of rows down to a small number of rows, then the cost of these subqueries could drop significantly, resulting in a change in execution plans.
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There are various sanity checks in the newer versions of Oracle that take place on joins involving multiple columns. This may make the CBO use individual selectivities from just one side of the join, rather than picking the selectivity individually for each join condition. It may also result in the optimizer using the value of 1/num_rows from one of the tables for the overall selectivity, if the selectivity would otherwise fall below that value.
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