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Note As we ll see in later chapters, you can also pass parameters using <xsl:with-param> when you
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call templates by name using <xsl:call-template> or when you invoke templates from an imported
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CHAPTER 6 VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
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The name that you use when you pass the parameter value into the template has to be the same as the name of the parameter that you ve declared in the template. Usually, as with stylesheet parameters, the XSLT processor won t complain if you try to pass a parameter into a template that doesn t declare that parameter, or if you don t pass a value for a parameter that s not required. The XSLT processor will complain, however, if you don t pass a value for a required parameter (one that has a required attribute with the value yes).
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Summary Template parameters have to be declared as the first thing in a template. You can use them
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to change what a template generates based on information from the template that causes it to be processed.
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Passing Parameters to Templates
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Let s look at how to use parameters so that we only create the ID for the <div> element once in TVGuide8.xsl. There are two templates that use the ID; both need to declare that they require a parameter (which we ll call $divID), which is a string, and then use that parameter in the HTML that they create: <xsl:template match="CastList" mode="DisplayToggle"> <xsl:param name="divID" as="xs:string" required="yes" /> <span onclick="toggle({$divID});">[Cast]</span> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="CastList"> <xsl:param name="divID" as="xs:string" required="yes" /> <div id="{$divID}" style="display: none;"> <ul class="castlist"><xsl:apply-templates /></ul> </div> </xsl:template> In the template that applies templates to the <CastList> elements that these templates match, we need to construct the ID for the <div> element we re creating and then pass that ID into the two templates using <xsl:with-param> within the two <xsl:apply-templates> elements, as follows: <xsl:template match="Program" mode="Details"> <xsl:variable name="programID" as="xs:string" select="concat(Series, 'Cast')" /> <p> ... <xsl:apply-templates select="Description" /> <xsl:apply-templates select="$castList" mode="DisplayToggle"> <xsl:with-param name="divID" select="$programID" /> </xsl:apply-templates> </p> <xsl:apply-templates select="$castList"> <xsl:with-param name="divID" select="$programID" /> </xsl:apply-templates>
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CHAPTER 6 VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
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If you transform TVGuide.xml with TVGuide8.xsl, which uses these template parameters, to give TVGuide8.html, you get the page shown in Figure 6-11, exactly the same as before.
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Figure 6-11. Viewing TVGuide8.html in Internet Explorer
The [Cast] button hides and reveals the list of cast members as it used to, but the stylesheet is easier to maintain because the way in which you identify the relevant <div> element is only defined in one location, rather than in two separate templates.
Tunnel Parameters
Complicated stylesheets can use large numbers of parameters to pass information between templates, and sometimes the template that supplies the value for a parameter can be far removed from the template that needs to use that value. Often that can mean you have to pass a parameter through several templates that don t actually need to use the value of the parameter. Keeping track of all the parameters that might need to be used by templates later on can be very tedious and prone to error. To get around this problem, XSLT 2.0 introduces the concept of tunnel parameters. When you first pass a parameter, you can declare that it s a tunnel parameter using the tunnel attribute on <xsl:with-param> with a value of 'yes'. This parameter will be passed on to the templates that are invoked by the <xsl:apply-templates> or <xsl:next-match> instruction, and to any templates that are invoked by the instructions held in those templates, and so on, without any templates having to actually declare or explicitly pass on the tunnel parameter. ou declare it in the normal way, but with mediate templates, which don t use the
CHAPTER 6 VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
tunnel parameter, can use parameters with the same name as the tunnel parameter, but they will declare the parameter without a tunnel attribute (or with the tunnel attribute set to 'no'), so there is no confusion about which parameter is being used.
Summary Tunnel parameters are automatically passed through templates. To use them, the tunnel
attribute on <xsl:param> and <xsl:with-param> is given the value 'yes'.
Indicating the Program with the Highest Rating
To see how tunnel parameters work, in TVGuide9.xsl we ll look at how to add an icon to those programs being shown that have the highest rating in the TV guide. With the <TVGuide> element as our current node, in the template matching the <TVGuide> element, we can work out the highest rating given to any of the programs in the TV guide using the max() function on all the rating attributes of all the <Program> elements in all the <Channel> elements, as follows: max(Channel/Program/@rating) We ll pass this value as a parameter called $highestRating when we process the <Channel> elements, as follows: <xsl:template match="TVGuide"> <xsl:sequence select="$ChannelList" /> <xsl:apply-templates select="Channel"> <xsl:with-param name="highestRating" select="max(Channel/Program/@rating)" /> </xsl:apply-templates> <xsl:sequence select="$ChannelList" /> </xsl:template> Later on, when we process a <Program> element in Details mode, we want to use the value of the $highestRating parameter to determine whether or not to add a star icon. We ll declare the parameter called $highestRating as a required parameter, and then test whether the <Program> element we re looking at has that rating in order to work out whether to add the icon or not: <xsl:template match="Program" mode="Details"> <xsl:param name="highestRating" as="xs:double" required="yes" /> ... <p> <xsl:if test="@rating = $highestRating"> <img src="star.gif" alt="[Starred]" width="20" height="20" /> </xsl:if> ... </p> ... </xsl:template> If you try to transform TVGuide.xml using TVGuide9.xsl, with just these changes, you will get an error, which
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