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CHAPTER 9 SORTING AND GROUPING
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Grouping in Sequence
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Grouping by value is probably the most common kind of grouping that you ll need to do in data-oriented XML, but it s also sometimes useful to be able to group the elements in a document based on the order in which they appear. This is especially true when you have flat XML to which you want to add structure. For example, CastList.xml, shown in Listing 9-1, contains a <CastList> element whose children are alternate <Character> and <Actor> elements. Listing 9-1. CastList.xml <CastList> <Character><Name>Zoe Slater</Name></Character> <Actor><Name>Michelle Ryan</Name></Actor> <Character><Name>Jamie Mitchell</Name></Character> <Actor><Name>Jack Ryder</Name></Actor> <Character><Name>Sonia Jackson</Name></Character> <Actor><Name>Natalie Cassidy</Name></Actor> </CastList> Say that you wanted to process CastList.xml to generate a cast list containing <CastMember> elements, as in TVGuide.xml: <CastList> <CastMember> <Character><Name>Zoe Slater</Name></Character> <Actor><Name>Michelle Ryan</Name></Actor> </CastMember> <CastMember> <Character><Name>Jamie Mitchell</Name></Character> <Actor><Name>Jack Ryder</Name></Actor> </CastMember> <CastMember> <Character><Name>Sonia Jackson</Name></Character> <Actor><Name>Natalie Cassidy</Name></Actor> </CastMember> </CastList> To do this you need to go through the children of the <CastList> element in turn, creating <CastMember> elements; each <Character> element you come across signals the start of another <CastMember> element. This is what the group-starting-with attribute is used for. The <xsl:for-each-group> instruction that does the grouping needs to select all the element children of the <CastList> element for grouping. The group-starting-with attribute needs to hold a pattern that matches <Character> elements (the pattern Character is the simplest one):
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CHAPTER 9 SORTING AND GROUPING
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<xsl:template match="CastList"> <CastList> <xsl:for-each-group select="*" group-starting-with="Character"> ... </xsl:for-each-group> </CastList> </xsl:template> Each time you find a <Character> element, you want to create a new <CastMember> element, and inside it place the elements in the group: the <Character> and <Actor> elements. <xsl:template match="CastList"> <CastList> <xsl:for-each-group select="*" group-starting-with="Character"> <CastMember> <xsl:sequence select="current-group()" /> </CastMember> </xsl:for-each-group> </CastList> </xsl:template>
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Note You could also use group-ending-with, matching <Actor> elements, to create the same set of groups.
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The group-adjacent attribute is sometimes useful when transforming from flat to structured XML. For example, if you have a document that contains <p> elements and a sequence of <li> elements at the same level, as in the following: <p>Here is a paragraph...</p> <li>First list item</li> <li>Second list item</li> <li>Third list item</li> <p>Another paragraph...</p> then you can wrap the <li> elements in a <ul> element by grouping adjacent items based on their names, and then, if a group is a group of <li> elements, wrapping the group in a <ul> element: <xsl:for-each-group select="*" group-adjacent="name(.)"> <xsl:choose> <xsl:when test="current-grouping-key() = 'li'"> <ul><xsl:sequence select="current-group()" /></ul> </xsl:when> <xsl:otherwise> <xsl:sequence select="current-group()" /> </xsl:otherwise> </xsl:choose> </xsl:for-each-group>
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CHAPTER 9 SORTING AND GROUPING
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Summary The group-starting-with and group-ending-with attributes are useful for adding
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structure to XML. The group-adjacent attribute, using a grouping key based on element names, can often be useful here as well.
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Multilevel Grouping
The previous sections have focused on single-level grouping. If you want to group by more than one thing at once, there are two techniques that are open to you. First, you can nest one level of grouping inside another level of grouping. The inner <xsl:for-each-group> selects the current group from the outer <xsl:for-each-group> as the sequence to group. For example, to group all the programs in the TV guide first by their series and then by channel, you can do <xsl:for-each-group select="/TVGuide/Channel/Program" group-by="Series"> <xsl:variable name="Series" as="xs:string" select="current-grouping-key()" /> <h2><xsl:value-of select="$Series" /></h2> <xsl:for-each-group select="current-group()" group-by="../Name"> <xsl:variable name="Name" as="xs:string" select="current-grouping-key()" /> <h3><xsl:value-of select="$Name" /></h3> <xsl:apply-templates select="current-group()" /> </xsl:for-each-group> </xsl:for-each-group>
I ve made this code clearer by assigning the value returned by current-grouping-key() to an Tip
appropriately named variable within each <xsl:for-each-group>.
There is no requirement for the two levels of grouping to use the same kind of grouping mechanism. For example, you could first group adjacent items using group-starting-with, and then group the items in that group using group-by. The other technique is to construct a grouping key that combines the things that you want to group by, usually by concatenating them into a single string with a unique separator between them. This technique is most useful if you want all the groups to be at the same level (rather than nested, as in the preceding example), and particularly if you want to number the groups in sequence. For example, to group programs by both series and channel at the same time, you could use <xsl:for-each-group select="/TVGuide/Channel/Program" group-by="concat(Series, ' on ', ../Name)"> <h2><xsl:value-of select="current-grouping-key()" /></h2> <xsl:apply-templates select="current-group()" /> </xsl:for-each-group>
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