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We ve already seen that HTML is a markup language that uses SGML, and how XML is a cutdown version of SGML. As you might expect, then, the syntax that XML defines involves a lot that s familiar from HTML: it has elements and attributes, start tags and end tags, and a number of entities for escaping the characters that are used as part of the markup.
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING XML
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In this section, we ll go through the rules that govern XML documents in general. These rules are known as well-formedness constraints, and XML documents that follow them are known as well-formed documents. Unlike with HTML, where browsers are notoriously lazy about checking the HTML that you give them, XML has to be well-formed to be recognized and usable by XML applications. When people talk about an XML document or XML message, then they are talking about well-formed XML. Well-formedness constraints are distinct from the rules that come from the vocabulary and grammar of a particular markup language (like HTML). An XML document that adheres to the rules of a particular markup language is known as a valid document; we ll see how to declare the rules that a valid document must follow later in this chapter.
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Testing Whether an XML Document Is Well-Formed
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Before we launch into a look at what the well-formedness rules are, we ll first look at how to check whether an XML document is well-formed or not. Knowing how to check well-formedness will enable you to try out different examples as we go through the individual rules. Most XML editors will let you test whether a document you create is well-formed and show you the error if it isn t. If you re not using an XML editor, you can test whether a document is a well-formed XML document by opening it in Internet Explorer or Firefox: by default a well-formed XML document will display as a collapsible tree. Try looking at the castlist2.xml XML document that we created earlier in this chapter in Listing 1-3 using Internet Explorer. You should see a tree representation of the XML file, as in Figure 1-1.
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING XML
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You can click any of the minus signs next to the start tags of the elements to collapse those elements. For example, Figure 1-2 shows all the <member> elements collapsed except for the first.
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Figure 1-2. Collapsing elements when viewing XML in Internet Explorer
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Now try adding the extension .xml to TVguide.html to create TVGuide.html.xml. Adding this extension will make Internet Explorer treat the HTML file as an XML file. But the HTML file doesn t adhere to XML rules, so you get an error reported, as shown in Figure 1-3.
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING XML
Figure 1-3. Viewing a non-well-formed XML document in Internet Explorer
By simply opening your document in Internet Explorer or Firefox, you can use any error messages that it shows you to identify the problems in your XML documents.
XHTML
As you ve seen, HTML doesn t follow the XML rules. However, you can turn HTML into XHTML. In the XHTML 1.0 Recommendation at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1, XHTML is called The Extensible HyperText Markup Language , but really its subtitle, A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0, is more accurate. As we ve seen, HTML is a markup language in the SGML family; XHTML is the same markup language (the same vocabulary and grammar) as HTML, but this time in the XML family. In the rest of this section, we ll take the HTML document that we put together in the last section and turn it into XHTML bit by bit. By the end of this section, you ll be able to open up the XHTML document with an .xml extension in Internet Explorer or Firefox, and it will display as a tree.
Naming Conventions
Names are used in several places in XML, the most important of which are element names, attribute names, and entity names. In general, the names that you use in XML only have to follow
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