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CHAPTER 10 IDS, KEYS, AND NUMBERING
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the following calls to the key() function will all return the preceding <Program> element (possibly along with others, if several programs star the same actors): key('programsByActors', 'Michelle Ryan') key('programsByActors', 'Jack Ryder') key('programsByActors', 'Natalie Cassidy')
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Summary A key can assign the same key value to multiple elements (in which case the key() function returns all the elements) and can assign multiple key values to the same element (in which case the key() function will return the element no matter which value is used).
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Creating Lists of Programs in Each Series
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It s easy to tell which series a particular program is an episode of using the XML structure that we ve put together, but it s not clear from the XML which episodes of a particular series are being shown. In TVGuide4.xsl, we ll add lists of the episodes showing in each series to the bottom of our TV guide. As a first step, we need to add a template that matches the <Series> elements that are direct children of the <TVGuide> element so that we can create sections that describe each series. The basic template just gives the name of the series as a heading, followed by its description: <xsl:template match="TVGuide/Series"> <div> <h3><xsl:value-of select="Title" /></h3> <p> <xsl:apply-templates select="Description" /> </p> </div> </xsl:template> We ll use this template to add information about the series being shown at the bottom of our page, by modifying the template that matches the <TVGuide> element. We ll apply templates to the <Series> elements in alphabetical order, based on their IDs: <xsl:template match="TVGuide"> <xsl:sequence select="$ChannelList" /> <xsl:apply-templates select="$Channels" /> <xsl:sequence select="$ChannelList" /> <h2>Series</h2> <xsl:apply-templates select="Series"> <xsl:sort select="@id" /> </xsl:apply-templates> </xsl:template> These two changes have been made in TVGuide4.xsl. When you transform TVGuide4.xml with TVGuide4.xsl to create TVGuide4.html, you should see a list of the series at the bottom of the page, as shown in Figure 10-5.
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CHAPTER 10 IDS, KEYS, AND NUMBERING
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Figure 10-5. Viewing TVGuide4.html in Internet Explorer
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One of the things to add to this description of the series is a list of the programs being shown from the series. To retrieve these programs efficiently, we should set up a key that indexes all the <Program> elements within TVGuide4.xml by the value of their <Series> child element, as follows: <xsl:key name="programsBySeries" match="Program" use="Series" /> The values of the <Series> element children of the <Program> elements tie up with the values of the id attributes on the <Series> element children of the <TVGuide> element. In the template for the latter <Series> elements, we can therefore retrieve all the <Program> elements that refer to the series using the following: key('programsBySeries', @id) Once we ve got hold of the <Program> elements using the key, we can iterate over them with an <xsl:for-each> as follows: <xsl:template match="TVGuide/Series"> <div> <h3><xsl:value-of select="Title" /></h3> <p> <xsl:apply-templates select="Description" /> </p> <h4>Episodes</h4> <ul> <xsl:for-each select="key('programsBySeries', @id)"> <li>
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CHAPTER 10 IDS, KEYS, AND NUMBERING
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<xsl:value-of select="parent::Channel/Name" /> <xsl:text> at </xsl:text> <xsl:value-of select="format-dateTime(Start, '[H01]:[m] on [M]/[D]/[Y]')" /> <xsl:if test="string(Title)"> <xsl:text>: </xsl:text> <xsl:value-of select="Title" /> </xsl:if> </li> </xsl:for-each> </ul> </div> </xsl:template> Making these changes in TVGuide5.xsl creates TVGuide5.html when used with TVGuide4.xml. TVGuide5.html is shown in Figure 10-6.
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Figure 10-6. Viewing TVGuide5.html in Internet Explorer
A Question Of Sport has one episode, on BBC1 at 19:00, whereas there are two episodes of The Simpsons showing, at 19:00 and 19:30 on Sky One. The key has indexed each program by its series, and it s used to retrieve all the programs of a particular series.
CHAPTER 10 IDS, KEYS, AND NUMBERING
Searching a Subtree
The final feature of keys that differentiates them from IDs is that you can search within a subtree of your XML document. When you use the id() or idref() function, and when you use the key() function with two arguments, you always search the entirety of the document that contains the context node. But if you give a node as the third argument of the key() function, then you search only that node and its descendants. For example, say you d indexed all the <CastMember> elements by the name of the actor, with <xsl:key name="CastMemberByActor" match="CastMember" use="Actor/Name" /> and you re currently on a <Program> element for which you know that one of the actors is Jack Ryder. If you try to find out the character played by the actor Jack Ryder using the two-argument version of key(), as in key('CastMemberByActor', 'Jack Ryder')/Character/Name then you ll get all the characters played by Jack Ryder, throughout the TV guide. To find only the character played by Jack Ryder in this particular program, you should use the three-argument version of the key() function, narrowing down the tree that s searched to the <CastList> within the current <Program>: key('CastMemberByActor', 'Jack Ryder', CastList)/Character/Name
Note The three-argument version of the key() function is also useful if you need to search a different
document from the one you re on currently; just give the document node of that document as the third argument.
The third argument to the key() function must be a single node, so you can t use it to search several subtrees at once. For example, if you wanted to search all flagged programs in the current channel for Jack Ryder, you couldn t use the following: key('CastMemberByActor', 'Jack Ryder', Program[@flag]/CastList)/Character/Name If you tried this with most channels, you d get an error because you d pass more than one <CastList> element as the third argument. However, you can use paths to search several subtrees. In this example, you could use Program[@flag]/key('CastMemberByActor', 'Jack Ryder', CastList)/Character/Name The first step in this path creates a sequence of <Program> elements. These are considered one by one, and for each one the key is used to identify, within their <CastList> child, the <CastMember> elements that contain an <Actor> element whose <Name> is equal to 'Jack Ryder'. From those <CastMember> elements, a sequence of character names is constructed.
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