CREATING SVG in Font

Encoding PDF 417 in Font CREATING SVG

CHAPTER 16 CREATING SVG
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Figure 16-6. Viewing circle2.svg in Internet Explorer However, if you set preserveAspectRatio on the <svg> element to none, then the actual size of the horizontal and vertical user units can be different, and the circle will be stretched as required to fill the image area on the page, as in Figure 16-7, which shows circle3.svg.
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Figure 16-7. Viewing circle3.svg in Internet Explorer
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CHAPTER 16 CREATING SVG
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You can use other units of length within SVG. One useful type of length is a percentage length, which calculates a length based on the width or height of the image. For example, the radius and center of the circle could be specified with the following: <svg width="12cm" height="4cm" viewBox="0 0 1200 400" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"> <circle r="11.18%" cx="50%" cy="50%" fill="#C00" stroke="black" stroke-width="1.118%" </svg>
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Note Percentages other than for x, y coordinates are worked out relative to a combination of the number
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of user units making up the height and width of the image, which is why 100 user units corresponds to 11.18%.
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Other units look like absolute units, but when they are used within the SVG graphic (rather than being used to set the height and width of the SVG graphic), they are actually calculated based on user units. These units are px 1 px is equivalent to 1 user unit. pt 1 pt is equivalent to 1.25 user units. pc 1 pc is equivalent to 15 user units. in 1 in is equivalent to 90 user units. mm 1 mm is equivalent to 3.543307 user units. cm 1 cm is equivalent to 35.43307 user units. When you use text within an SVG graphic, it s also handy to be able to specify lengths relative to the size of the text that you re using. You can do this with the following units: em 1 em is equivalent to the size of the current font. ex 1 ex is equivalent to the x-height of the current font.
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Graphic Elements
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The most important elements held within an SVG document are graphic elements, which draw shapes on the screen. The graphic elements in SVG are <line> Draws a straight line <polyline> Draws a line made up of multiple straight segments <rect> Draws a rectangle (or square) <circle> Draws a circle <ellipse> Draws an ellipse
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CHAPTER 16 CREATING SVG
<polygon> Draws a shape whose outline can be described by multiple contiguous straight lines, such as triangles or stars <path> Draws any line or the outline of any shape, including shapes with holes in the middle, for example <text> Adds some text to the graphic <image> Adds a PNG, JPEG, or SVG image to the graphic <use> Refers to and includes other elements from the SVG document
Note The <use> graphic element reuses graphic elements that you ve used elsewhere. We re not going
to go into the <use> element here, but you can read more about it in the SVG 1.1 Recommendation at http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/struct.html#UseElement.
The order in which you include graphic elements is important, as later graphics are overlaid on earlier graphics. For example, the SVG graphic in Listing 16-2 (2circles.svg) contains two <circle> elements. Listing 16-2. 2circles.svg <svg width="12cm" height="4cm" viewBox="0 0 1200 400" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"> <circle r="100" cx="550" cy="200" fill="#C00" stroke="black" stroke-width="10" <circle r="100" cx="650" cy="200" fill="#C00" stroke="black" stroke-width="10" </svg>
/> />
The second circle is displayed over the first circle, giving the graphic shown in Figure 16-8.
Figure 16-8. Viewing 2circles.svg in Internet Explorer
CHAPTER 16 CREATING SVG
Each of the graphic elements has attributes that position the graphic and control its precise size, shape, and color. Now we ll quickly go through each of the graphic elements to describe how their position, size, shape, and appearance are determined.
Lines
Lines are the simplest of the graphical elements. They start at one point on the canvas and end up at another point. The <line> element has two pairs of attributes to describe the start point and the end point of the line: x1 and y1 specify the coordinate of the start of the line. x2 and y2 specify the coordinate of the end of the line. All these attributes default to 0 (the top left of the image) if you don t specify them explicitly. The style of the line is determined by the stroke properties of the line, which are a set of attributes as follows: stroke The color of the line, which can be a keyword, a color specification (as in CSS or a reference to a color), or a gradient defined earlier in the graphic or in a separate file stroke-opacity The opacity of the line; a number between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque) stroke-width The width of the line stroke-linecap How the end of the line is drawn; one of butt (square, stopping at the end of the line, the default), round, or square (square, stopping half the stroke-width over the end of the line) stroke-dasharray The pattern of dashes and spaces that are used to draw the line as a series of comma-separated values giving, alternately, the length of dashes and spaces stroke-dashoffset The point within the dash array at which the line starts To demonstrate these attributes in action, look at the <line> element in line.svg, as in Listing 16-3. Listing 16-3. line.svg <svg width="12cm" height="4cm" viewBox="0 0 1200 400" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"> <line x1="400" y1="200" x2="800" y2="200" stroke="red" stroke-opacity="0.25" stroke-width="25" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-dasharray="25,50,75,50" stroke-dashoffset="50" /> </svg> The line starts at (400, 200) and ends at (800, 200) within the image. It s red, but has an opacity of 0.25, which means it s fairly transparent. The width of the line is 25 user units, and its ends are rounded, which means that the end of the line actually extends 12.5 user units (half the width of the line) past the end coordinate. The line is dashed, the pattern being a dash 25 user units long followed by a space 50 user units long, followed by a dash 75 user units long, followed by a space 50 user units long (this pattern is repeated for the length of the line). The
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