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add this element automatically whenever you create an HTML document.
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When you include an element literally in a stylesheet so that it s output in the result, these elements are known as literal result elements. You ll also have noticed that the text that you included in the stylesheet (namely the Hello World Example text in the <title> element) was also included literally in the result, and you ll see later that attributes are as well.
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Summary Any non-XSLT elements and attributes, and any text in a stylesheet, are given literally in the
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result. Elements that are generated like this are known as literal result elements.
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The <xsl:value-of> Instruction
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The one element in HelloWorld.xsl that isn t output literally to the result is the <xsl:value-of> element. The <xsl:value-of> element is a special element that the XSLT processor recognizes as an instruction. The <xsl:value-of> element usually takes an attribute called select. When the XSLT processor encounters an <xsl:value-of> instruction in the stylesheet, it inserts the value specified by the <xsl:value-of> element s select attribute. In the Hello World example, the <xsl:value-of> instruction tells the XSLT processor to insert the value of the <greeting> element from the source document (HelloWorld2.xml) in the
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CHAPTER 2 CREATING HTML FROM XML
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result. The select attribute holds an XPath /greeting. The XPath acts a bit like a file path. It tells the processor to go to the very top of the document and then down to the <greeting> element. We ll look at a few more XPaths a bit later on in this chapter.
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Summary The <xsl:value-of> instruction gives the result of evaluating the XPath held in its select
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attribute as some text in the result document.
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The XSLT Namespace
We can see from the result of the transformation that the XSLT processor recognizes the <xsl:value-of> element as an XSLT instruction. How does it know that <xsl:value-of> is an XSLT instruction rather than a literal result element like the other elements in the stylesheet Stylesheets are a particular example of a problem in XML: what do you do when you have a document that contains a mixture of elements and attributes from different markup languages It would be possible, even likely, that elements and attributes from different markup languages would have the same names, and so you need a way of distinguishing between them. XML distinguishes between elements and attributes from different markup languages with namespaces. Most markup languages have their own namespace, which is identified with a unique identifier a namespace URI. Namespace URIs are often (though not always) URLs. For example, the namespace URI for XSLT is http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform You ve seen this URL in the Hello World example. Let s look at the HelloWorld.xsl stylesheet again: < xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" > <html xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xsl:version="2.0"> <head> <title>Hello World Example</title> </head> <body> <p> <xsl:value-of select="/greeting" /> </p> </body> </html> The XSLT namespace is the value of the xmlns:xsl attribute on the <html> element. Attributes that start with xmlns have a special significance in XML; they re known as namespace declarations. A namespace declaration associates a short string, known as the namespace prefix, with a namespace URI. The prefix is the part of the attribute name after the colon. In this case, the XSLT namespace URI is being associated with the prefix xsl.
CHAPTER 2 CREATING HTML FROM XML
You can also have namespace declarations that don t specify a prefix. For example, we could add a namespace declaration without a prefix to the stylesheet, one that points to the XHTML namespace. Listing 2-7 shows the file HelloWorld3.xsl. Listing 2-7. HelloWorld3.xsl < xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" > <html xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xsl:version="2.0"> <head> <title>Hello World Example</title> </head> <body> <p> <xsl:value-of select="/greeting" /> </p> </body> </html> A namespace declaration that doesn t specify a prefix indicates the default namespace. So now the default namespace of our stylesheet is the XHTML namespace. When an XML parser goes through a document, it looks at each element and attribute and tries to work out what namespace the element or attribute belongs to. It treats the name of each element and attribute as a qualified name or QName for short a name that is qualified by the namespace to which the element or attribute belongs. If a qualified name contains a colon (:), then the part before the colon indicates a namespace prefix. The part after the colon is known as the local part or local name of the element. So in the case of <xsl:value-of>, the prefix is xsl and the local part is value-of. Once it s worked out what prefix is being used in a particular qualified name, the XML parser tries to work out which namespace URI the prefix has been associated with by looking at the namespace declarations. In this case, the prefix xsl has been associated with the XSLT namespace, so the XML parser knows that the <xsl:value-of> element is part of the XSLT namespace.
Note By convention, the XSLT namespace is usually associated with the prefix xsl. In this book, I use
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