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Let s look at the web.config file and its configuration for Windows authentication: <configuration> <appSettings/> <connectionStrings/> <system.web> <authentication mode="Windows"/> </system.web> </configuration>
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You can see that the configuration is quite simple in that one element, authentication, and its attribute, mode, is set to Windows . Now that the web.config file is set up, let s move on to the Global Application Class or, more specifically, the Global.asax file. The Global Application Class has several methods that are executed throughout the lifetime of the web application and the requests. The method we are interested in is the WindowsAuthentication_OnAuthenticate(). Within this method, we are going to attach a WindowsPrincipal object to the current user who is requesting the content from your web application. Here is the entire method that needs to be added to the Global.asax file: Public Sub WindowsAuthentication_OnAuthenticate (ByVal Source As Object, ByVal e As WindowsAuthenticationEventArgs) e.User = New System.Security.Principal.WindowsPrincipal(e.Identity) End Sub As mentioned, after this method is executed, the current request attaches the WindowsPrincipal object, which can then be accessed and utilized later in your application. This is important because the current request will then carry along the security information with it so it can be accessed throughout the entire web application. You now have the web.config and Global.asax files all complete with configurations. Next you can move into the main content of your web application where you can use the User object to find out about each user who requests your application. Let s look at the Default.aspx Web Form to examine in more detail how you can use the User and User.Identity objects. The following code is within the Page_Load method of the Default.aspx Web Form: Protected Sub Page_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles Me.Load Response.Write("Name: " & User.Identity.Name & "<br>") Response.Write("Authentication Type: " & User.Identity.AuthenticationType & "<br>") Response.Write("Is Authenticated: " & User.Identity.IsAuthenticated & "<br>") If User.IsInRole("Administrators") Then Response.Write("User is an Administrator") Else Response.Write("User is NOT an Administrator") End If End Sub Here you can see that you will simply be writing some information out to the browser via the Response.Write() method. It all starts with the User object. The User object returns the System.Security.Principal.IPrincipal interface. From this object, you can access the User.Identity along with the User.IsInRole() methods. When building and running the web page, you can view the information about the current user, as shown in Figure 11-1.
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Figure 11-1. Windows authentication information When the information is written to the browser, it displays the name of the current user or the user currently logged into your computer. It displays the computer name along with the login name. The computer name in our example is MOBILEPAUL, and the login name is paul.sarknas; therefore, we get the following for the output in the browser:
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Name: MOBILEPAUL\paul.sarknas
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The following output describes the authentication type, whether we are authenticated or not and if our username is within the Administrators group. The following is the output: Authentication Type: NTLM Is Authenticated: True User is an Administrator You can see that the authentication is Windows; I am authenticated because I m logged in to my computer and I am part of the Administrators group. NTLM is an abbreviation for the Windows NT LAN Manager, which is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft and displayed in this example because it is used by Internet Explorer.
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The second and probably most common method of authentication is called Forms authentication. Forms authentication is the way ASP.NET enables web applications to have their own login methodology and perform their own credential validation. As mentioned with Windows authentication, the web.config file needs to be configured to use Forms authentication. We can do so by adding the following code to the web project s web.config file: <configuration> <appSettings/> <connectionStrings/> <system.web> <compilation debug="true"/> <authentication mode="Forms"/> <authorization> <deny users=" " /> </authorization> </system.web> </configuration> Forms authentication uses a cookie for each user that requests content of the protected web application. The details of the cookie are also specified in the web.config file, as shown here: <configuration> <appSettings/> <connectionStrings/> <system.web> <compilation debug="true"/> <authentication mode="Forms"> <forms name=".ASPXFORMSAUTH" loginUrl="login.aspx" protection="All" timeout="30" path="/"> </forms> </authentication> <authorization> <deny users=" " /> </authorization> </system.web> </configuration>
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