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CHAPTER 9 WEB SERVICES IN WEB APPLICATIONS
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In this usage scenario, we can draw a direct parallel with the standard HTTP request and response. In the case of web services, each of the SOAP messages maps directly to the underlying HTTP messages. If an error occurs during processing that is not handled, or the developer code throws an exception, a special type of message, called a SOAP Fault, is sent in place of the SOAP response. This message contains details of the exception that was thrown, and allows you to provide information about errors in a standardized format that can be interpreted by a system easily, as opposed to the error pages that are displayed to alert users to errors in web applications. A SOAP message is transmitted within an envelope, just like sending a letter. This allows extra information to be transmitted along with the message data itself. Figure 9-11 shows the basic structure of a SOAP message, whether it s a request or a response.
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Figure 9-11. The basic structure of a SOAP message As you can see in the diagram in Figure 9-11, a SOAP message has the following structure: The SOAP envelope contains the entire SOAP message. The SOAP header contains arbitrary and extensible information, such as details about transactions, security, login information, the source of a request, and so on. These are similar in functionality to HTTP headers, but far more extensible. The SOAP body contains either a SOAP Fault or the actual XML payload of the message, which could be the bulk of the request message (the name of the method to call and the parameters that are to be passed to it) or the response generated after the call. The optional SOAP Fault contains details of errors that occurred. This is available only if an untrapped exception is raised, and it is available only as part of a SOAP response message. Other than when you re testing your methods through a browser, or when you implement a lot of the nuts and bolts work of creating web services yourself rather than relying on VS .NET, you are not actually exposed to the underlying SOAP messages. If you re developing an application that must integrate with a platform other than .NET, then such messages become far more important, as they may not be directly compatible with the output generated by the IDE. In most cases, however, XML serialization in .NET, combined with the built-in proxy class generation, is sufficient.
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CHAPTER 9 WEB SERVICES IN WEB APPLICATIONS
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Viewing a SOAP Request and Response
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You can see an example of a SOAP request and response by browsing to the URL http:// localhost/FriendsReunion/Services/Partners.asmx op=GetContactRequests. Beneath the input boxes that allow you to enter the login and password information, you can see a sample SOAP request and response for the method that you are examining (GetContactRequests()). The first block of code details the request. This can be split into two parts: the XML document (the data you re interested in sending) and all of the information that is required to send this document via HTTP The headers merely ensure that the HTTP . request being sent is well-formed and complies with standards. Beneath this is the SOAP message that we re interested in: < xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <soap:Envelope xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"> <soap:Body> <GetContactRequests xmlns="http://www.apress.com/services/friendsreunion"> <login>string</login> <password>string</password> </GetContactRequests> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope> You can see that the structure of the XML follows the diagram in Figure 9-11. The root node in the document is the soap:Envelope, which, in turn, contains a soap:Body. This body then details the name of the method to be called, along with the parameters to pass to it. The occurrences of string within the login and password tags are where you would insert the values for these parameters, such as apress. The response shows the complex information contained in a dataset. Both the schema for the data being returned and the actual information are included in the body: < xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" > <soap:Envelope ...etc...> <soap:Body> <GetContactRequestsResponse xmlns="http://www.apress.com/services/friendsreunion"> <GetContactRequestsResult> <xsd:schema>schema</xsd:schema>xml</GetContactRequestsResult> </GetContactRequestsResponse> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope> The schema is included as a W3C XML Schema, immediately preceding the actual data (the xml word before the closing </GetContactRequestsResult>). Other non- .NET platforms can therefore handle even this complex .NET object, as it s represented by standard XSD and XML data.
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