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CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
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Figure 10-1. Security settings on a folder in Windows As another example, you may have used the Component Services MMC snap-in to assign permissions to COM+ applications. Like file and folder ACLs (Figure 10-1), this approach also uses the credentials in the Windows domain credential store, but assigns access permissions to components based on them. Figure 10-2 shows an example of a component that can be accessed only by managers. For ASP .NET applications, you have other options for assigning permissions to resources, as described in this chapter. In Figure 10-1, you can see that Windows allows you to assign permissions to an individual user or to a Windows group. Figure 10-2 shows a similar way to assign permissions: through roles, such as Employees and Managers. This leads us to the next key concept: role-based security.
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You can easily imagine the administrative nightmare it would be to assign permissions to resources to one user at a time, especially if you have a large number of users. Furthermore, each new user created would need to be manually added to all of the resources that the user is supposed to be able to access. To avoid this, a higher-level construct is available, in which users are assigned to groups or roles according to application requirements. For example, a project administration and tracking system may define groups such as Administrators, Developers, Testers, and Users.
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CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
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Figure 10-2. Security settings on a component in COM+ This generalization allows you to apply permissions according to roles, as well as (or even instead of ) according to individual users. New users can then be included in certain roles. The most obvious advantage to this is that once a particular permission has been assigned to a role, new users with that role will automatically gain that permission. For example, if there is a resource that allows developers to upload the code they have developed, and which is obviously restricted to users who are included in the Developers role, a new programmer hired by the company will be able to access it automatically, provided she is included in the Developers role when the system administrator creates her account. A user can be included in more than one role simultaneously. For example, a user may be added to the Developers and Testers roles, if that user performs tasks related to both roles simultaneously. (Although some would say, with good reason, that it s not a good idea to be the only tester of your own code!)
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In order for an application to use role-based security, it needs a way to access the information. For example, it must be able to check that the current user is included in a certain role, and to act accordingly. The .NET Framework supports and exposes this scheme through the concepts of principal and identity. A principal is an object that contains the roles associated with a user. It also contains an identity object that holds information about that user. Together, they map onto the access controls provided by the Windows and COM+ security we discussed earlier. In fact, though you may not have noticed it at the time, you have already used these objects in the Friends Reunion
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CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
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application to pass around the current user s ID and to check if that user is authenticated. For example, we used the following code in 3 for selective rendering of navigation links: If Context.User.Identity.IsAuthenticated Then ... And we used the following to display the current user name in the SubHeader control in the same chapter: lbl.Text = Context.User.Identity.Name Context.User contains the Principal object associated with the current user for ASP .NET applications. Context is a property of the base Control class (from which Page and all server controls derive), and as such is available to all of the code in your code-behind page. It s actually a shortcut to the Shared HttpContext.Current property. We discussed this object with regard to state management in 6. If you look at the type of this property (place the cursor above User, and IntelliSense will do the rest), you ll find that it s actually an interface, IPrincipal. Likewise, the Identity property is of type IIdentity. This abstraction allows you to use the methods and properties defined in those interfaces, irrespective of the concrete types of principal and identity, which depend on the type of authentication used, as you ll see shortly. These two interfaces belong to the System.Security.Principal namespace, and they provide the most common properties and methods you may need when working with role-based security, as illustrated in Figure 10-3.
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Figure 10-3. Role-based security properties and methods The Page object provides access to the Principal object through a User property, too, which actually points to the same value in Context.User.
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