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CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
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Figure 10-5. ASP .NET security initialization
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Application Security Configuration
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A repeated refrain in this chapter is that the security behavior will largely depend on application configuration. As you already know, all web application-wide settings are configured in a file called Web.config under the application root folder. You have already used some of the security settings in developing the Friends Reunion application, but let s now take a look at all the options available. In the configuration file, security-related settings are divided into three elements: <authentication>, <authorization>, and <location>. In the following sections, we ll examine the purpose of each of these three elements.
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Authentication Configuration
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The <authentication> element defines the type of authentication that will be enforced, and it can contain child elements like <forms> and <passport> for those two types of authentication options. The element s syntax is as follows: <authentication mode="Windows|Forms|Passport|None"> <forms name="name" loginUrl="url" protection="All|None|Encryption|Validation"
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CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
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timeout="30" path="/" > <credentials passwordFormat="Clear|SHA1|MD5"> <user name="username" password="password" /> </credentials> </forms> <passport redirectUrl="internal"/> </authentication> When the authentication mode is set to Windows, all other tags will be ignored. For Forms authentication, all of the <forms> element s attributes have preconfigured default values, which are also found in the Machine.config file shown in the previous section: <forms name=".ASPXAUTH" loginUrl="login.aspx" protection="All" timeout="30" path="/"> So, if you configure Forms authentication only with the following syntax, you will need to provide a login.aspx page under the application root: <authentication mode="Forms" />
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Note The other <authentication> element attributes, valid child nodes, and their meanings are
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explained in depth in the MSDN help.
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So far, you ve used these configuration settings in Web.config: <authentication mode="Forms"> <forms loginUrl="Secure/Login.aspx"/> </authentication> For the Friends Reunion application, you let the default values take effect, and only overrode the loginUrl attribute to point to the location of your login form.
Authorization Configuration
The <authorization> element is the one used in ASP .NET to assign permissions to resources. The process of creating this element and its child elements and attributes is therefore comparable to the process of assigning file or folder security in Windows, or to that of defining the application roles allowed in COM+, as you saw earlier in the chapter (Figures 10-1 and 10-2). The <authorization> element has the following syntax: <authorization> <allow users="comma-separated list of users| |*" roles="comma-separated list of roles" verbs="comma-separated list of verbs" /> <deny users="comma-separated list of users| |*"
CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
roles="comma-separated list of roles" verbs="comma-separated list of verbs" /> </authorization> The and * (which don t actually appear in the documentation) represent the anonymous user (that is, an unauthenticated user) and any users (authenticated or not), respectively. The following is the default setting for this element in Machine.config: <authorization> <allow users="*" /> </authorization> In other words, all users are allowed to access the resources, unless otherwise specified in your application configuration file. This is the authorization setting you ve been using for the Friends Reunion application (in Web.config): <authorization> <deny users=" "/> </authorization> This means that you don t allow unauthenticated users to access any resource in the application.
Location Configuration
The <location> element can be used to specify <authorization> elements with regard to a certain path in the application. This is useful for setting exceptions to the rules defined for the whole application. You used it in 4 to explicitly allow Anonymous access to the NewUser.aspx form (which wouldn t be available according to the authorization setting shown in the previous section): <location path="Secure/NewUser.aspx"> <system.web> <authorization> <allow users="*"/> </authorization> </system.web> </location> If you didn t set this rule, unregistered users wouldn t be able to register themselves, since the NewUser.aspx page wouldn t be available unless they were previously authenticated! The path can also be a folder instead of a specific file, so the following setting would work equally well: <location path="Secure"> <system.web> <authorization> <allow users="*"/> </authorization> </system.web> </location>
CHAPTER 10 ASP.NET AUTHENTICATION, AUTHORIZATION, AND SECURITY
In fact, using a <location> element with a path to a folder instead of a file (as in the example here) is equivalent to adding a Web.config file in that folder with the same authorization settings. So, you could achieve the same configuration as the <location> setting in the code you have just seen by adding a Web.config file to the Secure folder and adding the following elements to it: <configuration> <system.web> <authorization> <allow users="*" /> </authorization> </system.web> </configuration> It s worth noting how the process of authorization takes place here. There is another module, called UrlAuthorizationModule, that is registered by default to all web applications and performs the checks. It is called after the other security modules have processed the request, so it uses the Principal that was associated with the current user by the appropriate authentication module. This way, these checks are independent of the authentication mode selected. This means that you can use authorization elements to deny or allow access to certain roles, for example, and leave the settings intact, even if you later decide to change the authentication mode, as long as the role names remain the same. The settings in a configuration file apply to the current folder and all its child folders, except for the <location> element, which applies only to the element specified in its path attribute. Application configuration files are hierarchical, which means that you can place multiple configuration files in different folders under the root application path, overriding the appropriate elements whenever necessary. These overrides can either broaden or tighten the settings in the parent folders. For example, you might deny Anonymous access to an application in general, just as we did for our Friends Reunion application, but make available a subfolder that contains items such as registration information or help pages.
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